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The John Batchelor Show “Hotel Mars,” Wednesday, 3-28-12 March 29, 2012

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The John Batchelor Show “Hotel Mars,” Wednesday, 3-28-12

Joh Batchelor, Dr. Darren McKnight, DrSpace on space debris & the ISS

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1745-BWB-2012-03-28.mp3

Guests:  John Batchelor, Dr. Darren McKnight, Dr. David Livingston.  Topics:  The ISS and space debris avoidance, space debris mitigation. You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. This program is archived on The Space Show website, podcasting, and blog sites with permission from John Batchelor. Please visit the John Batchelor Show website for more information about this fine program, www.johnbatchelorshow.com. The topics in this 20 minute plus segment focused on recent news reports regarding the risk to the ISS by incoming space junk.  The six crew members got into their Soyuz lifeboats, sealed the hatch and in the worst case scenario of a hit and damage to the ISS, they were ready for an emergency return to Earth.  You can read about this incident from many sources on the web or you can check out the story here:  www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/mar/13/space-junk-nasa.  Mr. Batchelor started out by asking Dr. McKnight if NASA had Plan B ready given the high number of debris objects in space.  Dr. McKnight talked about the debris that is cataloged and not cataloged, and the risk factor the ISS astronauts accept by going to the space station.  Darren then spent a few minutes talking with us on how solar cycles impact the quantity of space debris in the lower orbits. We also talked about liability issues should debris do damage.  In the latter part of our discussion, John asked Darren about remedies. We talked about them for both the LEO orbits and the higher GEO orbits.  Tumbling Russian rocket bodies were mentioned and I asked how the tumbling is stopped so the rocket body can be mitigated as a piece of debris.  Our discussion ended when John asked Darren if there were space debris cops to enforce debris mitigation efforts on launching companies and countries.  Post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog URL above. If you want to email either John Batchelor or Dr. McKnight, please send your note to me and I will forward it.

Dr. John Jurist, Tuesday, 3-27-12 March 27, 2012

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Dr. John Jurist, Tuesday, 3-27-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1744-BWB-2012-03-27.mp3

Part 1, Bisphosphonate Usage in Microgravity

Guest:  Dr. John Jurist.  Topics:  This is the first in a series of programs focused on the use of bisphosphonates to mitigate bone loss in long duration spaceflight.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, & discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, & any discussion must be relevant & applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed back Dr. John Jurist for the first of several programs devoted to understanding bone loss in microgravity & the use of prescription the bisphosphonate family of drugs to mitigate the problem.  Dr. Jurist provided talking points which you can find below this summary on The Space Show blog.  A significant portion of the second segment is devoted to understanding these talking points so follow along.  We started our discussion with an explanation of the bone loss problem facing those in microgravity.  Following this brief overview, Dr. Jurist told us about bisphosphonates, the origins of this drug, how it was developed, how its usage, what some of the side effects are, some of the trials that have been associated with the drug, & space/NASA studies.  Later in this nearly hour long segment, we talked about the human population & what happens to our bone mass at various stages in our life. We talked about gender, racial, & ethnic differences in human bone mass issues.  As you will hear, there are gender & other differences among our diverse population.  This led us to asking about using targeted genetics in selecting crews for longer spaceflight missions.  Genetic modification was mentioned, especially for the long term, but for the near term, looking for better exercise routines & pharmaceutical modification/treatment seem to hold the most promise.  Dr. Jurist then talked about bisphosphonate side effects.  Fast transit time to Mars or a long duration mission destination came up. As you will hear, even if you get to Mars faster, you still have the problem on the surface of Mars.  The big problem is we have no credible information on what the gravity prescription for humans needs to be so we do not know if Martian gravity is sufficient to mitigate the problem.  Next, we focused on the need for an orbiting centrifuge, we talked about the size & spin rate of the centrifuge, & what to actually test for in experiments.  Dr. Jurist suggested that starting with 1/6th lunar gravity made sense because if it was sufficient, we would know that anything stronger than 1/6th would work.  If not, we should probably next experiment with Martian gravity which is about 1/3rd Earth gravity.

In our second segment, Dr. Jurist referred to his talking points which you will find on The Space Show blog. We went line by line so follow along with us.  Despite interruptions, John stayed on topic with the talking points.  Listener questions asked about how gravity & having a load on bones works & what happens in space when that load is no longer present.  We talked about the time prescription as well as the load factor (G force).  Toward the end, John told us about a reviewed radiation article from 2010 showing that radiation impacted bone loss so the issue in space is more complex than just microgravity.  Near the end, John got a question asking about ETs & their thin, pencil like shape making them perfectly designed for microgravity.  This was both an interesting & fun discussion, bordering on science fiction.  Another question asked about fish, reptilian, sea mammal, & bird bones.  Our final topic dealt with the release of personal astronaut medical information & others & the ways for private information to be legally released to the public.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog URL above.  Email for Dr. Jurist can be sent to me for forwarding.

________________________________________________________

Dr. John Jurist Bisphosphonate Talking Points:

Bisphosphonate show Tues 8:00-9:30 MDT Talking Points

Introduction:             Bone is incredibly complex with many inter-related factorsGoal:                          Brief outline of cellular, structural, and functional aspects of bone metabolism in order to help listeners better understand and appreciate the potential role of bisphosphonates (which is the subject of a future show)

Bone Function:          Two types of bone – compact and trabecular: Compact is outer shell, very dense, and fairly strong

Trabecular – also called spongy, contains spicules, plates, and struts of bone tissue with lots of vascular and fatty marrow, called trabecular

Remodeling:             Bone is constantly being turned over or remodeled with portions being torn down and constituents dumped into bloodstream and other portions being built up from nutrients supplied by blood

Very rapid bone loss can lead to kidney stone formation from calcium dumped into blood

Turnover rate and the volume of total skeleton undergoing remodeling at any given time tends to go down with increasing age (remember this – important)

Balance between formation and resorption (tearing down) also tends to be lost after about age 30, lack of activity, certain hormonal imbalances, diseases, etc. with resorption predominating – one rationale for estrogen replacement therapy after menopause

Coordination between formation and resorption partly controlled by mechanical strains on bone tissue (called Wolff’s Law and issue in microgravity) – some evidence that mechanism is electrical in nature – rationale for electric and electromagnetic bone growth stimulators used to treat problematic fractures and improve incorporation of bone grafts

Cells:                          Stem cells differentiate (or specialize) into osteoprogenitor cells which differentiate into osteoblasts which are the bone formers

Osteoblasts create and secrete a protein and polysaccharide matrix called osteoid which is then calcified later to form the stuff we call bone

Interference in that calcification leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia (Greek for soft bones) in adults

Osteomalacia is often a result of interference in Vitamin D metabolism or dietary deficiencies

During bone formation, some osteoblasts “paint” themselves into a corner and get surrounded by bone – they are then called osteocytes and somehow maintain bone tissue

If osteocytes die in a volume of bone, that devitalized bone no longer undergoes remodeling but can eventually be replaced by a process called creeping substitution (remember comment about remodeling volume going down with age)

Devitalized bone can accumulate fatigue defects and eventually suffer fatigue fractures (called stress fractures – common in military recruits and deconditioned people who recondition too rapidly) if the defects are not replaced by new bone during creeping substitution

Other cells, with multiple nuclei and called osteoclasts, differentiate from marrow cells (monocytes and macrophages) which in turn differentiate from stem cells

Osteoclasts are the bone resorbers and destroyers

Autoradiographic studies show that their nuclei also came from osteocytes as well – presumably as they are resorbed during bone destruction process

Osteoclasts are related to multinucleated “giant cells” which are associated with inflammation in ways I do not understand

Bisphosphonates:      Used over past 20-30 years in clinical medicine – brands include Actonel, Boniva, Fosamax, Aredia, etc.

Multiple mechanisms with different dose-response properties results in clinicians juggling doses and brands to get effects they want without effects they do not want

Bind to hydroxyapatite – the mineralized  portion of bone tissue (calcified osteoid)

Inhibit bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclastic activity

Inhibition of resorption signals osteoblasts to slow down formation rates after a delay (but increases their lifetimes (anti-apotosis)

Bisphosphonates also inhibit mineralization of osteoid – especially at higher doses

That eventually reduces turnover rate and can lead to fatigue fractures with prolonged treatment (remember to call 1-800-BAD-DRUG)

Orthopedic surgeon (Frost atHenryFordHospital) figured out that cyclic therapy exploits delay in osteoblast inhibition relative to osteoclast activity and results in better bone mass gains

Bisphosphonates used in oncology to preserve bone and reduce pathological fractures with osteolytic tumors such as breast and prostate cancers.  Also to counter hormonal blocking therapy used for prostate and breast cancers, but side effects increase with duration of treatment

Interesting sidelight with oncology is some evidence that bisphosphonates reduce risk of tumor metastasis to bone and other sites (somehow involving same signaling pathway as giant cells?)

Oral bisphosphonates cause stomach upset – advise staying upright for an hour or two after taking pill – how does this affect microgravity exposure?

Intravenous bisphosphonates get around oral gastric upset, but placing line or port has risks too (most oncology patients have ports during active treatment)

Also cause osteonecrosis – especially jaw which I believe is septic or infective – and atrial fibrillation (talk to Bill Rowe on this one since he is interested in heart physiology in space)

Bone quality:             Turnover rates and percent of skeleton not devitalized important factors in determining bone strength – measuring bone mass by DEXA or other means is not the be all and end all in evaluating bone strength and risk of fracture.

My Goal:                   General background on bone physiology and function to aid in appreciating upcoming show(s) on bisphosphonates in space medicine

Dr. Pal Brekke, Monday, 3-26-12 March 27, 2012

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Dr. Pal Brekke, Monday, 3-26-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1743-BWB-2012-03-26.mp3

Guest: Dr. Pal Brekke.  Topics:  Solar physics, astronomy, and his new book, “Our Explosive Sun.”  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed Dr. Peter Brekke to the program to discuss his new book, “Our Explosive Sun: A Visual Feast of our Source of Light and Life.”  The book is available on Amazon & if you use this link for your purchase, Amazon will donate to The Space Show/OGLF:  www.amazon.com/Our-Explosive-Sun-Visual-Source/dp/146140570X/ref=onegiantlea20.  Additional information you will hear discussed during this interview can be found at the following websites:  www.norway.org/News_and_events/Research–Technology/Pal-Brekke-at-the-Smithsonian-/www.solarmax.no/Aurora/Home.html; http://www.springer.com/astronomy/extraterrestrial+physics,+space+sciences/book/978-1-4614-0570-2. Dr. Brekke began our discussion with an overview of his new book, how he structured the book, & its appeal to readers of all ages.  We talked about how our knowledge of the sun has increased in recent years, especially since the SOHO satellite in 1995.  He told us that his book is arranged as a visual tour.  We also discussed the sun & cultural differences around the world. Listener Sandy wanted to know about solar storms, solar flares, & CMEs.  This led to a question about the relationship of the sun to climate change on Earth.  Don’t miss this part of our discussion.  Dr. Brekke introduced us to the subjects of auroras & space weather. As the segment ended, a listener asked about the physical location of solar satellites.  How close can they be to the sun? As you will hear, most of the solar satellites are orbiting Earth, but SOHO is the one that is the greatest distance from Earth, parked at 1% of the distance to the sun so it can observe the sun 24 hours day.

In the second segment, Dr. Brekke talked about the SWIFT Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. space solar power, & reflective mirrors in space to beam sunlight to the Earth.  I asked our guest several questions about the Norwegian Space Centre & the Norwegian space industry.  We learned that their industry makes many parts for satellites for NASA as well as ESA.  He said the space awareness of Norwegians is good as they know quite a bit about space.  Binary star systems, the Northern Lights, the southern hemisphere, Polar Lights, & the cause of the auroras were also mentioned.  Near the end of the program, I asked about the impact of NASA budget cuts & program cancellations on the Norwegian space industry.  As you will hear, what NASA & our Congress do does impact the Norwegian industry.  He also talked about the IRIS High Resolution Spectrometer being worked on by Lockheed in the Palo Alto area.  Before the program ended, I asked if the high launch costs impacted the Norwegian industry.  He said no because they make parts for satellites & missions & are not directly involved in the launch side of space.  We also talked about the rate at which solar knowledge was increasing, was there a role for the ISS in solar research, & the increasing role of Earth-based telescopes in solar observation.

If you have comments/questions, please post them on The Space Show blog URL above.  If you want to email our guest, please send it to me and I will forward it for you.

Dr. Robert Farquhar, Sunday, 3-25-12 March 26, 2012

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Dr. Robert Farquhar, Sunday, 3-25-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1742-BWB-2012-03-25.mp3

Guest:  Dr. Robert Farquhar.  Topics:  Our discussion centered around his memoirs in his new book and his space involvement over fifty years.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed Dr. Robert Farquhar back to the program to discuss his new book, “Fifty Years On The Space Frontier: Halo Orbits, Comets, Asteroids, and More.”  If you purchase the book using the following Amazon link, Amazon will make a contribution to The Space Show/OGLF:  www.amazon.com/Fifty-Years-Space-Frontier-Asteroids/dp/1432759272/ref=onegiantlea20.  Dr. Farquhar started out by talking about his early interest and work in aviation and space, gradually taking us up to and including the missions he has described in his excellent book.  Among some of the points he made included that in the early years, there was much more independent freedom for those working on missions while today things are done by consensus, committees, etc. When asked if the missions were improved and the costs contained by the newer methods, he said he did not think so. Its an interesting discussion you will want to hear.  He highlighted several of the early missions and we talked quite a bit about the halo orbit and Lagrange points.  He also told us stories about plaques he snuck on missions, trying to arrange one mission arrival to coincide with his birthday and more.  Great stories and for sure you will have a smile if not an outright laugh when listening to Dr. Farquhar.  He also said all of the stories he was telling us were in his book.  Later in the longer first segment we talked about human spaceflight and why he supports SLS/Orion.  This discussion took us into a more extensive conversation about L1 and L2 missions in the Earth-Moon system.

In the second segment, listeners asked about L4 with the 2010 TK7 asteroid, New Horizons, Pluto, Mercury, and more.  Bob told us additional stories, including some about the photos used in the book.  The JWST came up as did additional funding for NASA.  Bob did not think more funding was needed but thought the existing money could be used better.  The Kuiper Belt was discussed as were asteroid issues in general along with specific missions.  Neat the end of the show, I asked Bob if his space work & expertise has given him perspectives on the existence of ET.  This is a brief discussion you do not want to miss!

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog URL above.

Dr. Phil Chapman, Friday, 3-23-12 March 24, 2012

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Dr. Phil Chapman, Friday, 3-23-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1741-BWB-2012-03-23.mp3

Guest:  Dr. Phil Chapman.  Topics:  The status of our human spaceflight program, NASA, commercial space.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. We welcomed back Dr. Phil Chapman to suggest ways forward to improve our space program, specifically the human spaceflight (HSF) program.  Dr. Chapman started us off with an assessment that the NASA HSF program was at this time dismal.  Among the reasons cited were the likely number of U.S. astronauts that would be flying to the ISS through 2020 per the Soyuz and the fact that the pilots for U.S. astronauts will either be Russian or working for Space X.  All in all, he suggested that there might be 25-30 slots available and they would be filled by technicians.  During this nearly hour long first segment, he continued to summarize the problems and challenges, then he switched to probable solutions from the commercial side with a focus on Space X, the Falcon 9, and Dragon.  Phil had much to say about congressional support of SLS, the use of SRBs, and more.  He talked about the commercial value in returning to the Moon or going to an asteroid for Platinum Group Metals (PGM).  He indicated that future space activity had to be in support of settlement and commercialization.  Dr. Chapman then took us into an economic discussion and the need for space to be expanding, growing and developing new markets. As part of this discussion, both of us and the listeners had much to say about our policy makers. This brought up the “sustainable” discussion that many of you have heard before.  You do not want to miss Dr. Chapman’s economic discussion in this segment. Near the end of the segment, we talked about RLVs and the probable cost difference between a commercial venture and one undertaken by NASA.

In the second segment, Charles led off with a call suggesting a merger between Space X and Bigelow and simply bypassing NASA for everything.  After Charles finished, Phil talked about one probable driver for changing the space game, space solar power (SSP).  Dr. Chapman spent much of this segment laying out the case for SSP from a technical as well as economic/business perspective.  We also talked about policy and Zero G Zero Tax.  Public/Private partnerships were discussed and then Phil talked about international cooperation as compared to international competition.  Don’t miss this discussion.

If you have comments/questions for Dr. Phil Chapman, please post them on The Space Show blog URL above.  If you want to email Dr. Chapman, send your note to me and I will forward it to him.

 

Henry Vanderbilt, Thursday, 3-22-12 March 23, 2012

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Henry Vanderbilt, Thursday, 3-22-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1740-BWB-2012-03-22.mp3

Guest:  Henry Vanderbilt.  Topics:  Space Access Society Conference, Phoenix, ArizonaApril 12-14, 2012.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed back Henry Vanderbilt to the program to discuss the upcoming Space Access Society Conference, April 12-14, 2012 to be held at the Grace Inn in Phoenix, Arizona. For the conference agenda, registration and full hotel information, visit www.space-access.org.  During the first part of our initial segment, Henry provided us with an historical overview of not only the development and evolution of the Space Access Society meetings and conference, but also his own personal work in the space arena leading up to his excellent space activism of today which focuses on the space transportation issue.  This is a comprehensive look at activities that have brought space exploration and development to today since about 1986.  While Henry has been a frequent Space Show guest, this is perhaps the most detailed look we have had from him regarding his space evolution and the rise in importance of the Space Access Society (SAS).  Later in this nearly hour long segment and until our break, Henry highlighted many of the speakers that will be at the conference.  You can see the full list and the three day agenda at www.space-access.org/updates/sa12info.html.

In our second segment, we talked about more of the speakers but mainly focused on those that would address policy and budget issues as not all of the SAS speakers are on the business/entrepreneurial side of space development.  Some of the highlights included the NASA Chief Technology Office, ULA, policies for going beyond LEO, and advocacy on issues supported by SAS.  As part of this discussion, we talked about SLS, ISS, Space X, depots, and budgetary pressures on NASA and key members of congress.

If you have comments/questions, please post them on The Space Show blog URL.  If you have questions for Henry about SAS, you can email him at space.access@space-access.org.

Michael Laine, Tuesday, 3-20-12 March 21, 2012

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Michael Laine, Tuesday, 3-20-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1739-BWB-2012-03-20.mp3

Guest:  Michael Laine.  Topics:  Lunar space elevator, general space elevator discussion.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. We welcomed Michael Laine for updates on his company LiftPort & their latest space elevator plans.  Michael started the discussion with an overview of his involvement in the space elevator project, his company LiftPort up through its fiscal problems, the reestablishment of the company with intellectual property, & a lunar space elevator study from 2010-2011.  He brought us current with LiftPort plans into 2012 plus what the company & his team have planned for the balance of the year.  Michael talked about his team, issues relating to a lunar space elevator, how the Moon rotates/spins differently than the Earth, & how an elevator would be different than an Earth-based elevator which he said cannot be built at this time.  He made the point that the lunar elevator could be built now, does not need a carbon nanotube ribbon & will likely go from Sinus Medii on the Moon to an orbiting spaceport at the Earth-Moon L1 point where there might be a Bigelow station with EELV or Falcon 9 flights coming up from Earth.  He also said the early flights would be robotic but that both capability and capacity would expand to include humans.  He was of the opinion that the basic lunar space elevator could be completed within a decade.  Eric called in to challenge some of Michael’s technical analysis.  Michael offered to send the math analysis of the project to anyone requesting it.  His email address can be found at the end of this summary.  Later in this hour long segment, I asked Michael about business issues, the market, financing (public, private, both), ROIs, & more.  As you will hear, this part of the LiftPort plan is unfinished.  Michael’s team has been confirming the math analysis for the project & has yet to refine their business plan/due diligence analysis. When pressed, he said the cost might be around $700-$800 million but they were increasing that to $1.5 billion to be a bit conservative.  He also said this was for a small elevator with a payload capacity of 40-240 kg.  In speaking about the commercial aspects of the project, he repeated many times throughout our discussion that they were focused on cash flows and the commercial aspects but first they needed certainty about reaching the technical “go” point.

In our second segment, Michael continued his theme that they do not yet have the business plan components in place.  I then asked if this was nothing more than a feasibility project?  That seemed to summarize our discussion so far.  Michael did point out that LiftPort already had two intellectual property (IP) assets so the company was positioned to make money even before the elevator project got going beyond the study phase.  I pressed him for his public finance plans.  His idea was based on the Railroad Acts which included bond sales guaranteed by the government with the government providing sufficient business revenues to support the bond guarantee.  A listener brought up the issue of space debris & climbers.  Michael pointed listeners to their YouTube channel to see their climber in action.  Mars elevators were mentioned near the end of the program as well as LiftPort internships.  We also talked about the recent Japanese company’s announcement of their own elevator plans (Obayashi Corp.).  Michael also suggested the space elevator conference (http://spaceelevatorconference.org).

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog URL above. You can email Michael Laine at laine@liftport.com).

Duane Hyland, Monday, 3-19-12 March 20, 2012

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Duane Hyland, Monday, 3-19-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1738-BWB-2012-03-19.mp3

Guest:  Duane Hyland.  Topics:  Guidelines for the Art of Persuasion in taking the case for space beyond the space community.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed Duane Hyland to the program to discuss the guidelines for persuading others in an argument or debate. Mr. Hyland, a winning debate coach, provided us with important guidelines for making a persuasive argument.  Our guest started with Aristotle and the three elements needed for winning the argument: Ethos (authority, credibility), Logos (logic), & Pathos (emotional).  You can find out more from this concise summary: http://courses.durhamtech.edu/perkins/aris.html.  Another statement of the argument was provided by Stephen Toulmin of Austria who later came to the U.S. In the 1960s, he developed CWI Model (Claim, Warrant, &Impact).  Listen how Duane describes the Toulmin Model of Argumentation.  You can read more about it on the web but here is a brief summary:  www.forensicsonline.net/forum/uploads/1/827212498280123410.pdf. Check the section titled “Instruction.”  Once Duane explained the basic components of a winning argument, we talked about specific examples in the space enthusiast community as well as Space Show interviews some of my experiences in public speaking & in being part of panel discussions.  One of the early points Duane made was that we can easily get carried away by our emotions, forgetting to properly frame the argument.  Another point made was about the overuse of technology.  I asked him about rants & Duane strongly advised against them. He talked about supporting the claim with facts, controlling an audience, & the effective & important use of humor/laughter.  Duane talked extensively about needing a strategy & practicing your speech to make sure you speak naturally not robotic-like.

In our second segment, we discussed more situations & the tools needed to counter them, but keep in mind that it starts with your awareness of these situations.  Other issues discussed were age & differences in an audience, do we target a segment of the audience, do we engage in partisan politics & if so, how do we do it to be most effective.  Duane pointed out that personal attacks don’t have a place in winning debates & persuading others.  A listener brought up writing Op-Ed articles & we learned the guidelines apply to this discipline the same as in debating & speaking.  Other listeners asked Duane what he thought the most effective space speech was plus they wanted examples of effective space speakers today.  We talked about the use of references as is done in debates.  References or evidence, are important but note how Duane suggested evidence be used when we talk to others about space.  The issue of pork as in NASA projects came up.  The use of loaded language was discussed & our guest said we should always avoid using it.  Another listener asked Duane for his top five debate topics.  Space was not included but when I pressed him, he said space would have been a topic in the next five.  In summarizing, he said we should rehearse our argument but remember to deliver it in a natural style.  He suggested a few books at the end for those wanting more information.  The primary title he recommended was “Argumentation and Debate: Critical Thinking for Reasoned Decision Making” by Austin J. Freely, 1999.  You can get this book on Amazon using the following URL & Amazon will then make a contribution to The Space Show/OGLF:  www.amazon.com/Argumentation-Debate-Critical-Wadsworth-Communication/dp/0534561152/ref=onegiantlea20.  Don’t miss his closing suggestions.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog URL above.

NASA Centennial Challenges, Night Rover, Friday, 3-16-12 March 17, 2012

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NASA Centennial Challenges, Night Rover, Friday, 3-16-12

Featurinig Josh Neubert & Dr. Larry Cooper

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1737-BWB-2012-03-16.mp3

Guests:  Josh Neubert, Dr. Larry Cooper.   Topics:  NASA Centennial Challenges and the Night Rover Challenge.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed back Josh Neubert and for the first time, Dr. Larry Cooper, Program Executive for the NASA Centennial Challenges program.  You can learn more about Centennial Challenges by visiting www.nasa.gov/challenges. For more specific information on the Night Rover challenge, visit http://nightrover.org.  In our first segment, Dr. Cooper went over the history of NASA Centennial Challenges with a specific focus on the Night Rover Challenge.  We also talked about the two other challenges going on at this time, the Sample Return Robot Challenge and the Nano-Satellite Launch Challenge.  You can access the websites for these additional challenges from the NASA Centennial Challenge home page.  Dr. Cooper talked about some of the successes of the program, including the glove challenge won by Peter Homer who has been a guest on The Space Show.  Josh went into some of the details regarding Night Rover, specifically the draft Rules which are now out and open for comment.  Josh also talked about the Team Agreement.  He described the $1.5 million prize and the eligibility requirements for winning this prize.  He then talked about the three levels of storage battery density in terms of winning the prize.

In our second segment, Josh said it was opened for everyone from a garage entrepreneur to a large company.  Larry talked about ideas for future challenges and asked listeners to suggest ideas to NASA.  He then told listeners about the process for submitting future ideas, especially for the next five year.  Larry and Josh both referenced earlier successful Challenge programs plus a few that were retired without anyone winning them.  Several Challenge ideas came in from listeners including one on debris removal and Larry said that NASA Centennial Challenges was authorized to issue up to a $50 million purse!  We talked about ITAR issues and partnerships for prizes with other space agencies such as ESA.  Later in the segment, I asked about the history of prizes and our guests went as far back as the Longitude Prize regarding ocean navigation which was actually won by a clock maker. Other prizes and awards were mentioned in this historical review of the subject.  When asked for closing comments, Josh reminded us to provide feedback on the draft rules and Larry spoke highly of prices having a positive impact on entrepreneurs, being a plus for tax payer funding, and for pushing the envelope for discovery and advancements with technology.

If you have comments or questions for our guests, please post them on The Space Show blog URL above.  If you want to email either guest, please send your note to me and I will forward it to the person of your choice.

AIAA Space Policy Program, Wednesday, 3-15-12 March 15, 2012

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AIAA Space Policy Program, Wednesday, 3-15-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1736-BWB-2012-03-15.mp3

Guests:  Steven Howell; John Rose.  Topics:  AIAA Space Policy Activities.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed Steve Howell and John Rose to this special hour long American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) program on key issues of space policy for the U.S.  Please note that about 17 minutes into the discussion, our conversation was interrupted by music from an unknown source. I had to remove about a three minute section from our discussion due to the unwanted music which is why you will hear a rough edit in the recording.  We started the discussion with Steve giving us an overview of AIAA and its role in both aviation and space policy.  We talked about public space policy, Congress, and the role of industry.  In response to my asking him for the main areas of AIAA policy focus, he listed for us the key issues that have the attention of AIAA.  Don’t miss what he listed and said about each one.  We also talked about the fact that most of the key issues were long term issues.  I focused in on human spaceflight and our guests said we needed a sustainable human space transportation system that was safe and cost effective.  Also such a system should be a high priority.  Our guests were asked if they addressed specific projects such CCDEV or SLS. As you will hear, the AIAA focuses more on the policy, it does not attempt to pick the winners or specific programs relating to a policy.  One of the main discussion points from our guests dealt with workforce issues and making sure we do not lose vital skill sets for both the industry and our nation.  In response to other questions, our guests said that there was a “perfect storm” in Washington, DC regarding space policy, research programs, & civil space.  The lack of a vision was mentioned along with there being no defined mission, goals, or timelines.  Our guests then told us about the AIAA Congressional Visits Day which is open for your participation.  Find out more about it and their plans to personally lobby members of congress by visiting www.aiaa.org/cvd2012.  Listener Mike Snead asked our guests about AIAA policy regarding NASA human spaceflight standards & the NASA level of acceptable risk.  Both our guests had much to say in response to Mike regarding this issue, but for the most part they said AIAA provides technical support and analysis for the policy makers to use in making policy.  This is an important discussion you do not want to miss.  Space workforce issues came up again in our conversation.  Both John and Steve pointed out the key issues, including how the market has changed over the years. Also, how we now compete with countries that used to provide us with much of our special workforce labor.  We also talked about other fields of engineering being more popular with students than space.  Near the end, Dale called in on a bad phone line but he was able to ask about using modern green rocket technology, engines, and fuel rather than old technology and outdated chemical rocket propulsion.  I’m sure you will find the response to be interesting.

If you have questions/comments, post them on The Space Show blog URL above.  If you want to email either of our guests, send your note to me and I will forward it.

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