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Mike Gold, Tuesday, 7-1-14 July 2, 2014

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Mike Gold, Tuesday, 7-1-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2272-BWB-2014-07-01.mp3

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Guest:  Mike Gold.   Topics:  Office of Commercial Space Transportation (COMSTAC) Advisory Committee & Bigelow Aerospace updates.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back Mike Gold, particularly in his new position as the Chair of the Office of Commercial Space Transportation (COMSTAC) Advisory Committee, as well as for Bigelow Aerospace updates in the second half of our program.  During the first segment of our one hour discussion, Mr. Gold talked about the Office of Commercial Space Transportation, the COMSTAC which is the Advisory Committee of which he is the new Chair. He also explained the relationship of the COMSTAC with the FAA AST and let us know that their meetings are open to the public.  Announcements, archived videos and other important COMSTAC information can be found on their website at http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ast/advisory_committee.  ITAR reform was also a big part of our discussion.

In the second segment, Mr. Gold provided us with Bigelow Aerospace updates.  We started with Tony’s email about the Landis Land orbit in the Venusian Atmosphere in which in which he inquired if Bigelow or anyone had any plans to put a habitat in that orbit.  Mile’s response seemed to leave some openings there for a future down the road.  We talked more about ITAR, a subject that was discussed in both segments.  Mr. Gold talked about the upcoming ISS Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM), which is scheduled to arrive at the space station in 2015 for a two-year technology demonstration (www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/news/beam_feature.html).  Mike mentioned that an astronaut would actually board the module.  We talked about government regulations, going BLEO and space property rights.  In fact, Mike suggested that the absence space property rights or legal processes for investment by private space companies is at least a partial explanation for why we have done so little in space development over the past several decades.  In the context of space based property right, we discussed the Outer Space Treaty (OST), benefit sharing issues, and the Moon Treaty.  Mike talked about an important first step in property right which would be to make sure that companies who operate and engage in space development can do so in an exclusive non-interference zone.  Near the end of the discussion we talked about the frustration in waiting for progress to be made, the earlier Bigelow successes including Genesis 1 & 2 and the BA 330 full service/size habitat.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog.  You can reach Mike Gold through COMSTAC or me.

Dr. Alice Gorman, Tuesday, 1-7-14 January 8, 2014

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Dr. Alice Gorman, Tuesday, 1-7-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2160-BWB-2014-01-07.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Alice Gorman.  Topics:  Space archaeology.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.

We welcomed Dr. Alice Gorman to the show for this 1 hour 38 minute fascinating space archaeology discussion.  During our first segment, Dr. Gorman explained space archaeology, talked about space debris, cultural preservation, and much more.  We talked about archaeological techniques used here on Earth and how they can be applied to space archaeology.  We also talked about the fact that most space artifacts are in space so what we often find in museums are replicas or simulated items which are not the same and have a different meaning for the archaeologist.  Dr. Gorman then talked about the possibility of artifacts from other cultures or even extraterrestrial life and questioned if we could even recognize what we were looking at or working with since it might be radically different from what we know and work with on Earth.  Listener Jonny emailed in to ask what would happen if China went to an lunar Apollo landing site and took some of the items left on the Moon back to be displayed in a Chinese museum.  Dr. Gorman did not think that likely, spoke about the Outer Space Treaty and that items are always owned by the launching company, and the NASA heritage sites guidelines they have proposed. Several questions came in regarding growth in the private, commercial, & entrepreneurial segments of the space community and how cultural and heritage protection might work with these nongovernment entities.  This led to an interesting discussion about company behavior, culture, early planning, awareness, and even benefit sharing.  We had a fun discussion about advertising in space for the ad to be seen back on Earth and we talked about how many of us hold the night sky sacred and do not want it spoiled.

In the second segment, Angela asked Alice when space archaeology would come into its own.  Alice replied that it already had “arrived” and cited many examples proving this.  Kimberly emailed in about the usefulness for archaeological purposes of space settlement garbage. Mars One was the model for this.  As we learned, archaeologists learn much from garbage so don’t miss what Alice said might result from a Mars One garbage dump analysis.  Todd emailed in about pets going to space settlements and if archaeologists would look for pet remains or traces of human pet relationships to learn about a space settlement.  We talked about Dark Skies and raising our awareness for specific issues, plus the need for early planning by businesses.  As the show was about to end, I asked our guest for the hottest topics in space archaeology. Alice named three topics.  The final question asked Alice to look forward five years and describe the field of space archaeology in 2019.

Post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog above.  Check our Dr. Gorman’s blog, Space Age Archaeology, at http://zoharesque.blogspot.com.  Her university website is www.flinders.edu.au/people/alice.gorman.  Her email address is listed on the page.

Jon Goff, Friday, 3-15-13 March 16, 2013

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Jon Goff, Friday, 3-15-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1974-BWB-2013-03-15.mp3

Guest:  Jon Goff.   Topics:  The Lunar Patent concept and Altius Space Machines company updates.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information.

We welcomed Jon Goff, President and CEO of Altius Space Machines, back to The Space Show for this 60 minute discussion focusing both on the idea of a lunar patent and Altius company projects and updates. I suggest you read and follow along with these websites and blogs:  http://selenianboondocks.com; http://altius-space.com, and Jon’s blog article about the lunar patent concept http://selenianboondocks.com/2013/01/random-thoughts-columbus-article-link-and-lunar-patents.  For the first part of our hour long discussion with Jon, we focused on the lunar patent idea.  Jon got the idea to write about it on his blog from Mike Mealling’s own blog post on his RocketForge blog, “Lessons in exploration from Columbus and the Spanish Crown” at http://rocketforge.org/2013/01/10/lessons-in-exploration-from-columbus-and-the-spanish-crown.html.  Jon spent time with us going over the history of how and why the Spanish crown put forth the Columbus expedition which he said was all about getting patents along the trade routes.  Jon applied this concept to lunar development explaining how it might work.  He also suggested this might be an end run around the absence of property rights and the terms of the U.N. space treaties.  Listeners asked questions about how a patent might work, would it need to be issued by an international entity to be enforceable, and how could it be enforced.  This brought up the question of benefit sharing and terms & concepts such as those found in the Moon Treaty.  Jon said he was interested in feedback, especially from the space legal community so please share your thoughts on The Space Show blog.  During the balance of our time with Jon, he told us about his company plans, new ideas, SBIRs, and SAA agreements to develop a new breed of robotic arms.  We talked about tools for satellite service and possible ISS free flyers.  Jon told us about their project with Nanoracks, DARPA, and JPL.  He also described MINION which is a project with NASA LArc for an extendable/retractable arm that could operate inside the ISS. You can read about this project on Jon’s Selenian Boondocks blog.  A listener asked him about using Kickstarter for funding new projects and another listener was interested in hearing more about Jon’s plans for Altius in the future.

If you have comments/questions for Jon Goff, please post them on The Space Show blog.  You can reach Jon through the Altius website, his blog, or through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Dr. Henry Hertzfeld, Tuesday, 3-5-13 March 6, 2013

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Dr. Henry Hertzfeld, Tuesday, 3-5-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1964-BWB-2013-03-05.mp3

Guest:  Dr. Henry Hertzfeld.  Topics:  Commercial space, Mars, human spaceflight, regulations & economics.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information.

We welcomed Dr. Henry Hertzfeld back to the show for a fascinating 90 minute discussion regarding commercial space, human spaceflight (HSF), recently announced HSF Mars missions, increasing the launch rate, and more.  During our initial segment, Dr. Hertzfeld addressed my question about lowering launch prices to increase the launch rate.  Dr. Hertzfeld did a classic economic study on this subject several years ago and I asked him if today’s current market and commercial space progress had altered his earlier conclusions.  He said no. Later, I asked if space solar power (SSP) could drive launch rates down.  The short answer was no but don’t miss what he had to say about SSP economics, launches, and debris issues.  Jerry emailed in a question about SpaceX being a commercial company given its receipt of government money.  Henry had much to say about what makes a company commercial or not and if it is even an important issue.  Another listener wanted to know about the deep space commercial ventures announced in 2012 and in 2013.  The listener wanted to know if these were really commercial ventures, if regulations could stop them, and what would happen re the ventures needing property rights or the equivalent.  One of the things our guest reiterated several times during our discussion was the need for stability and predictability for the commercial industry.  Questions came in about benefit sharing and he mentioned the likelihood that some sort of international system would develop on these issues. I asked what constituted an acceptable ROI and the example of controlled ROIs as in the utility industry came up.  Doug wanted to know about rocket reusability and its impact on launch costs.  We also talked about both Mars One and the new Inspiration Mars mission.  As part of this discussion, astronaut rescue and the rescue treaty were discussed.  In the second segment, Doug called to discuss property rights for a NEO as opposed to the Moon, wondering if the Moon might be more valuable.  Doug & Henry talked about our having returned lunar rockets as a model for commercially returning lunar products but Henry suggested there might be a difference in returning something for science as compared to commercial exploitation.  Later, we addressed human spaceflight and its challenges.  The Chinese space program was brought up as was the risk of a space war.  Dr. Hertzfeld was asked about putting 10,000 people on Mars, space migration, species survival, space settlement, and the need to explore as possible drivers for HSF.  My final question pertained to our evolving to a business friendly environment in space.  Simply put, we are not there yet.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog above.  You can email Dr. Hertzfeld through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Jim Keravala, Shackleton Energy Co., Friday, 12-14-12 December 15, 2012

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Jim Keravala, Shackleton Energy Co., Friday, 12-14-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1914-BWB-2012-12-14.mp3

Guest:  Jim Keravala.  Topics:  Shackleton Energy’s cislunar economic development plans.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. We welcomed Jim Keravala to the program to talk with us about the Cislunar development plans for Shackleton Energy.  To learn more, visit their website at www.shackletonenergy.com. Jim started our discussion with an overview of Shackleton Energy and their Cislunar development plan.  As you will hear throughout our discussion, the plan involves the propellant depots near the ISS and in other locations, water ice development at the lunar north and south pole, the use of insitu resources and eventually Shackleton industrial astronauts.  Our guest spent most of the first segment describing the plan, the various stages of development, the use of robotic technology leading up to human spaceflight and benefit sharing ideas.  He talked about being able to solve or at least significantly contribute to solutions to our global energy usage problems which he said would be around 30 terawatt hours(TWh).  He talked about the viability of SSP at that point based on the cislunar Shackleton Energy development program. Jim also mentioned the risk of reaching the Kessler limits regarding space debris.  Ben sent in an email asking Jim for his thoughts on benefit sharing, a subject put forth on The Space Show by recent guest Dr. Edythe Weeks.  Jim was supportive of benefit sharing through technology exchanges and transfers as well as in helping under developed nations build an industry to allow them to compete and have a presence in the expanding space industry.  He cited his work with Surrey Satellite Company and their African space development program as an example, plus he talked about sharing to make sure everyone benefitted from space development which could significantly improve life in these countries.  We talked about government corruption problems and ITAR as issues that might get in the way of benefit sharing, but Jim was steadfast in the need to reach out to third world countries to engage them in space development for the commercial and industrial benefits.
     In our second segment, Doug called to ask about transitioning from telerobotic missions to human missions.  Here, Jim did a comprehensive explanation of the different phases of their development plan leading up to industrial astronauts in cislunar space. He talked about trades with humans based at EML1 as compared to the lunar surface regarding repair and maintenance missions of lunar surface hardware.  Charles wanted to know about their choice of launch vehicles.  Jim also got questions about their timeline and capital acquisition plans.  Randy wanted to know if they would be able to meet the 2020 timeline referenced in their website video.  Near the end, Jim got questions about the requirements for becoming an industrial astronaut.  In summary, Jim talked about their ambitious project, TRLs, and the importance of the project from many different perspectives.
      Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog. If you want to email Jim Keravala, you can do so through me.

Michael Listner, Tuesday, 11-27-12 November 28, 2012

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Michael Listner, Tuesday, 11-27-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1902-BWB-2012-11-27.mp3

Guest:  Michael Listner.  Topics:  Space law & policy review for 2012.  Please direct all comments & questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments & questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright & are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. We welcomed Michael Listner back to the show to do our first ever annual review of space law issues. Michael had several topics to discuss including the Code of  Contact, Transparency & Confidence-Building Measures (TCBMs), Cube sat regulation, ITAR, Planetary resources & space property rights, Space debris with an emphasis on EnviSat, Austria’s space law in particular the launch of Austria’s first satellite in December, Commercial space in particular limited liability laws, Delineation of air space & outer space, the Moon Treaty & the ascension of Turkey & Saudi Arabia, Rules of Arbitration, & the preservation of Apollo landing sites.  We started with two main space law issues of 2012, the European Code of Conduct & TCBMs.  Michael did a good job explaining the history of these items, where are today with them & what is likely to happen with them in 2013.  We also talked about space taking on the role of being normal & we both pointed out ways in which it interacts with regular law even if consumers are behind a firewall & have no awareness of space law issues.  Our discussion turned toward benefit sharing & this took us into an extensive Moon Treaty discussion. I urge people not blow off what to many of us are radical departures from how we have been conducting space affairs & how we want to see commercial space evolve.  There are longer term potential risks given trends in benefit sharing, more countries signing on to the Moon Treaty, & even listener feedback I get right here on The Space Show.  Michael urged us to pay attention if other nations sign the Moon Treaty, particularly if Russia or China agree to it.  Michael talked about legal theories that can make the Moon Treaty enforceable given it is a legal treaty, even if the U.S. & others do not sign it.  Again, I urge our audience to not discount this potential longer term risk.
     In the second segment, Michael talked about the issue of just where space starts.  He mentioned two theories on this & why it is an important issue. The U.S. position tends to discount the debate & operates as if the 100km point is the edge of space.  It appears we abstain from the debate with the opinion it is a settled issue but evidently not in some circles as it is a hot button issue.  We also talked about the limited liability laws for suborbital space, especially in New Mexico which is having a problem accepting it in its legislature.  We mentioned the potential impact limited liability might have on Spaceport America so it deserves watching.  Michael talked about cubesat regulation & an upcoming European conference on that subject.  He said it is something we need to be carefully watching.  ITAR reform, especially in terms of getting satellites off the munitions list to the dual technology list was also a key issue for the year & will be next year.  We also talked about space debris issues & the impact of ESA’s EnviSat.  As our program was ending, I asked Michael for some future 2013 assessments of hot button issues.  Among those he mentioned included the Code, TCBMs, ITAR, possibly the Moon Treaty & Planetary Resources types of issues.  A listener asked about our withdrawal from the OST but Michael did not think that would mean much. Our last topic dealt with the historical preservation of the Apollo 11 & 17 landing sites.
    Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog.  You can email Michael at michael@spacelawsolutions.com.

Dr. Edythe Weeks, Tuesday, 11-20-12 November 21, 2012

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Dr. Edythe Weeks, Tuesday, 11-20-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1897-BWB-2012-11-20.mp3

Guest:  Dr Edythe (Edy) Weeks.  Topics: We discussed her book, various commercial space development models, benefit sharing & more.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. We welcomed Dr. Edythe (Edy) Weeks to the program to discuss her book, “Outer Space Development, International Relations and Space Law: A Method for Elucidating Seeds.” You can buy her book on Amazon & if you use the following URL, Amazon will contribute to The Space Show/OGLF: www.amazon.com/Outer-Space-Development-International-Relations/dp/1443839655/ref=onegiantlea20.  During our first segment of this 2.5 hour discussion, Dr. Weeks introduced us to her book and the need to understand space development from an international relations perspective.  We talked about how the industry has evolved over the last 20+ years, innovations such as citizen science suborbital missions, new commercial players, & innovative business ideas such as asteroid mining.  Dr. Weeks talked extensively about the need for an ideological shift toward space throughout the non-space population & within our global educational systems.  When Todd from San Diego emailed Edy as to how to create the ideological shift, that opened a discussion on how such shifts are created.  It was very interesting that one of the major examples cited by our guest included the growth & popularity of tattoos.  This sparked quite a conversation, some of it laced with humor, lots of fun, but also relevant points to our discussion.  As our segment was ending, our guest talked about the need to include other perspectives in the space benefits, those coming from outside the STEM fields.
     In our second & very long segment, I opened up asking Edy about the ideas in her book in support of benefit sharing & the Common Heritage of Mankind concepts found in some of the U.N. space treaties.  This discussion prevailed for the balance of our program as our guest is looking for new and different business & social models for space to be more inclusive which she believes will lead to more space commerce.  I took a challenging & argumentative position throughout most of the discussion in explaining why most in the NewSpace and commercial space industries do not support benefit sharing and why. We talked about the need for property rights & why such rights would facilitate commercial development.  Dr. Weeks was not supportive of the property rights positions, looking more for space development to accomplish much needed social change and reform around the world. Also, she made the case that property rights were not needed nor supported by the treaties & their working papers. Dr. Weeks did clarify her position regarding capitalism, the U.S., commercial space companies & benefit sharing ideas so don’t miss her clarification. Let us know your thoughts on our blog. Tax revenues were discussed but as you will hear, our guest focuses on actual benefit sharing beyond tax payments to help create wealth for everyone, including those that would be the recipient of the benefit sharing programs & the commercial space business.  We talked about voluntary charitable giving as compared to mandatory or government required giving through benefit sharing.  I cited Microsoft & Google models for why private sector giving with the pursuit of business unfettered by government induced benefit sharing is better.  Tim called in to express his very strong views in support of the private sector & his opposition to reallocation of resources regardless of how it is termed by either government or the UN.  Edy referenced the OST & the Moon Treaty in making her points, making the case that outer space resources belong to everyone, not just the developer.  While we did use an outrageously successful multi-trillion dollar model for our discussion of the space mining example, the idea was made that the company could easily afford to “give” a percentage to the benefit sharing process, over & above taxes, assuming the company was profitable, even at more realistic levels.  Our guest was very articulate in presenting her views & ideas, plus her book does a very good job of comprehensively dealing with what we just barely had time to scratch during our program.  For more information, check out Edy’s blog and YouTube video:  www.youtube.com/watch?v=okyVWJglxow & http://blogs.webster.edu/globalthinking/blog/2012/07/16/outer-space-development-is-subject-of-new-book-by-hpirs-edythe-weeks/#more-2802.
     Please post all comments/questions about this discussion on The Space Show blog.  I will bring all comments to the attention of Dr. Weeks on a regular basis.

The John Batchelor Show, Hotel Mars, Wednesday, 4-25-12 April 25, 2012

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The John Batchelor Show, Hotel Mars, Wednesday, 4-25-12

 John Batchelor, Mary Kissel, Rand Simberg, Dr. David Livingston

 http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1760-BWB-2012-04-25.mp3

Guests:  John Batchelor, Mary Kissel, Rand Simberg, Dr. David Livingston.  Topics: Space Property Rights. You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. This program is archived on The Space Show website, podcasting, and blog sites with permission from John Batchelor. Please visit the John Batchelor Show website for more information about this fine program, www.johnbatchelorshow.com. The topics in this 11 minute segment focused on private enterprise in space and the establishment of space property rights.  We talked about the current situation regarding space property rights, the Outer Space Treaty, Benefit Sharing, The Moon Treaty, and the need to have property rights to support commercial space development.  We also talked about Rand’s concept, “Homesteading the Final Frontier” which supports the idea of land claims. You can download and read his paper at http://cei.org/sites/default/files/Rand%20Simberg%20%20Homesteading%20the%20Final%20Frontier.pdf.  If you have questions or comments, please post them on The Space Show blog. 

If you would like to send an email to either Mr. Batchelor, Mary Kissel, or Rand Simberg, do so through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com and I will forward it for you.

Michael Listner, Monday, 1-2-12 January 2, 2012

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Michael Listner, Monday, 1-2-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1681-BWB-2012-01-02.mp3

Guest:  Michael Listner.  Topics:  National and international space law issues including property rights, the Moon Treaty & more.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomes Michael Listner to the program to discuss national and international space law issues and related matters.  We started out discussing the new Austrian domestic space law and inquiring of our guest why we should take note of this Austrian law here in the U.S.  As you will hear from Mr. Listner, the new Austrian law relates specifically to the UN space treaties and plays a role in international space law.  Our guest wrote a recent article on this subject in The Space Review on Dec. 12, 2011.  You can read his article at www.thespacereview.com/article/1988/1.  Another interesting article of his you might value is in DefensePolicy.org from July 7, 2011 and titled “TCBMs: A New Definition and New Role for Outer Space Security.”  You can download it at www.defensepolicy.org/2011/michlis/tcbms-a-new-definition-and-new-role-for-outer-space-security. Our discussion then focused on launching country issues and liability, satellite operations in different countries and both the Liability and the Registration U.N. Conventions.  This discussion led us to talking about the European Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities and Michael updated us on the status of this voluntary agreement, both on the international front as well as here in the U.S.  Other issues discussed in this segment included space debris and the Draft Russian Chinese Treaty On The Prevention Of The Placement Of Weapons In Outer Space (PPWT).  We also talked about the Chinese GPS system covering Asia, its military focus, and Chinese geo political intersects.  Michael then introduced us to Transparency and Confidence Building Measures (TCBMs) as alternatives to treaties. This prompted several listener questions and comments about “so called” government transparency, the word of governments, and their effectiveness so far.  This was an interesting discussion, especially when I asked our guest for his personal opinion on these types of agreements.  Space tourism became a subject and we spent some time on the liability issues and the states that have passed liability protection laws for the space companies.  Jack from Virginia was listening and provided us with important information about the Virginia law which he largely authored and which has become a model for the laws in Florida, Texas, and New Mexico.  We spent the rest of the first segment talking about liability and space tourism issues. In the second segment, Helen asked if funding levels for NASA and space interests correlated to up’s and downs in space policy.  As you will hear, most policy is driven by politics, not funding levels.  There were lots of questions about the legality of the Moon Treaty and its applicability to commercial space, even Google Lunar X Prize contestants.  We fielded questions on lunar mineral extractions as well as messing with Apollo artifacts on the Moon.  We then jumped over to property rights and what this actually means regarding space issues.  As we were nearing the end of our discussion, I asked Michael if space law was largely an academic field or if it was becoming a career choice field in terms of practical application.  He said it was becoming more and more practical and more and more schools were offering commercial law classes.  If you have comments or questions for Michael Listner, please post them on the blog URL above.

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