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Charles Miller, Monday, 9-30-13 October 1, 2013

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Charles Miller, Monday, 9-30-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2096-BWB-2013-09-30.mp3

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Guest:  Charles Miller.  Topics:  Commercial space, small satellites, commercial crew, human spaceflight & more.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.

We welcomed Charles Miller back to The Space Show for this 1 hour 31 minute program.  During the first segment, Charles talked about the future of commercial space, extending the life of the ISS, managing risk and uncertainty to maximize returns and benefits for commercial space, plus he used the company he co-founded, NanoRacks, as a commercial model utilizing the national lab ISS.  We talked about commercial crew, the success of the Space Act Agreement for contracting and pockets of congressional resistance to the commercial and Space Act programs.  In discussing commercial opportunities on the ISS, we also talked about CASIS and the role it is playing in bridging the gap and facilitating commercial companies using the ISS.  Charles then talked about his company, NexGen Space LLC and he referenced the DARPA XS-1 Reusable Spaceplane.  A listener asked our guest about a possible influx of commercial opportunities from outside the U.S.  In response to this question, Charles talked about competing cultures and why the U.S. is so strong with its culture of innovation.  Commercial crew, human spaceflight, and the need to spend 6 months training in Russia were discussed with the latter being an impediment.  Suborbital demand was a topic as were the commercial efforts by Boeing, Sierra Nevada, ATK and other mainstream aerospace companies.

In our second segment, we talked about Kickstarter and the use of crowd funding in the emerging commercial space industry.  Innovation and low cost space access were key topics and themes for this segment.  Listener Jack asked about space entrepreneurial management teams & what to look for in a quality team.  I asked Charles to tell us where he thought the industry would be in ten years.  Charles talked about small satellite constellations, far more affordability across the board, and a large growth space tourism industry.  He also mentioned that the turning point will come when we have cheaper access to space than today. Toward the end of our discussion, Charles was asked for his suggestion for the best path to pursue for those seeking commercial space careers. In response, he talked about getting real hardware and flight experience & mentioned high schools that provide this experience.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog per above.  Charles Miller can be reached through me using drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Rand Simberg, Tuesday, 6-25-13 June 26, 2013

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Rand Simberg, Tuesday, 6-25-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2036-BWB-2013-06-25.mp3

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Guest:  Rand Simberg.   Topics:  Rand’s new book release, “Safe Is Not An Option,” human spaceflight potential regulation.  Please direct all comments/questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments & questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright & are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those of you interested in the opportunity to submit feedback on the NRC congressionally mandated Human Spaceflight Study, please go to www.nationalacademies.org/humanspaceflight.   Please remember that your Amazon Purchases Can Help Support The Space Show/OGLF (http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm).

We welcomed Rand Simberg back to the program for this 1 hour 47 minute discussion regarding his about to be released book, “Safe is Not An Option.”(http://safeisnotanoption.com).  Check out the book summary: http://safeisnotanoption.com/book-summary.  During our first hour, Rand explained the production challenges he has had with the book, the name change from last fall, & delays. He compared similarities with a book printing production run to the launch/flight rate.  With both he said one needs to get the rate way up there for economies of scale.  For the balance of our discussion, we talked about human spaceflight risk taking, the regulatory environment of today, &  potential risks to this regulatory environment down the road after 2015.  Rand supports individual choice & believes that regulation regarding flight safety would be detrimental to this developing industry. The subtitle of the book makes Rand’s case:  “Overcoming The Futile Obsession With Getting Everyone Back Alive That Is Killing Our Expansion Into Space.” Jim emailed to ask Rand to compare the risk taken by Virgin & XCOR flight participants with risky terrestrial ventures.  Rand suggested this would depend on the informed consent documents required under current FAA regulations.  Trent asked about one way trips to Mars & Mars One.  This brought up the discussion of space ethics & the Mars One position of pregnancy & childbirth as an ethical issue, not a personal choice issue as is the decision to do a one way trip to Mars.  Rand stressed that his book has to do with people taking their own risk, not the government, regulators, or policy makers dictating risk taking.

In the second segment, we fielded several questions from Curt on risk taking & Congress, plus he asked Rand about the nomad gene.  Another listener emailed in a question focused on the role of the media in helping to make space important beyond the space community.  Another listener wanted to know if Rand could see a day where to avoid government regulation, private human spaceflight would take place outside the United States.  I asked Rand about feedback he has received regarding his book & thesis, his interest in a Washington, DC media event upon the book’s release, selling the book at the upcoming NewSpace 2013 Conference, & if in his research, he came across papers, books, or other works advocating similar positions to his. During the entire discussion, Rand repeated his understanding that space is not important to the policy makers.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog above. Rand can be reached through his own blog on the About page at Transterrestrial Musings at www.transterrestrial.com.

Dr. James (Jim) Wertz, Sunday, 3-17-13 March 17, 2013

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Dr. James (Jim) Wertz, Sunday, 3-17-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1975-BWB-2013-03-17.mp3

Guest:  Dr. James (Jim) Wertz.  Topics:  Reducing space mission launch costs, changing space industry attitudes.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information.

We welcomed back Dr. Jim Wertz, President of Microcosm, to continue our discussion on lowering total space mission costs.  For more information, visit the company website, www.smad.com/ie/ieframessr2.html.  Make sure you check out the Scorpius launch vehicle link on the website as this launcher could be a model for what Dr. Wertz talked about during the program.  In the first hour of our 100 minute program, Dr. Wertz identified sequestration and the government response to it as a big problem for the space industry, specifically the smaller companies and financially vulnerable projects.  Also, the fact that we are still on CR with the budget adds to the stress.  Despite the problems, Dr. Wertz did say throughout our discussion that it was possible for something good to come out of all of the problems in that we might actually start focusing on lowering total space mission costs. During much of the first hour, Dr. Wertz discussed the way the industry works, some of the challenges to lowering mission costs, and the need for lots and lots of attitudes to change to embrace the lower mission cost goals rather than the status quo or holding on to thinking that the rough times will pass and then we will be back to normal.  We talked about choke points in the strategy, the challenges, the hurdles.  I asked if NASA and Congress were the obstacles.  Dr. Wertz mostly said it was a collective attitude throughout the industry with all of us and all sectors that prevents the broad scale creation of the low cost mission environment.  He cited many examples, including a ten year spacecraft build out with a 15 year life such that when done, its 25 years behind the times.  He talked about advancing & new technology and the need to stay current, to keep replacing the old with the new.  We also talked about the value & economics of having hardware & component backups on a shelf ready to go when needed.  Reusability came up & I used Doug’s email as the poster question on the subject.  This turned into an detailed discussion about the both the upside and downside of reusability. As you will hear, economics don’t favor reusability unless there is a dramatically higher launch rate.  Dr. Jurist called in to talk about student projects & the need to launch them while the students are still in school. He also talked about this in the context of keeping young people interested in space.  He asked Jim for solutions and Jim suggested simpler designs. For example, pressure fed systems rather than using high speed turbo pumps with thousands of parts, plus the use of more composites, especially in the tanks.  Jim was asked about the minimum possible launcher size and he said about 100 kg or 220 lbs. to LEO.

In our shorter second segment, Dr. Wertz was asked about the commercial private ventures announced in 2012 and so far this year.  He though we were technically capable of doing most of them but that the track record for the private sector in reducing total space mission costs was not that much better than the public sector track record.  He went back to saying the main driver was attitude and that changing attitudes within the industry in the public and private sectors was key to reducing space mission costs.  He cited yet another example, this time the idea to use AMSAT for space communications.  Dr. Wertz added that we need to convey urgency to the policy makers in getting them to change their attitude as other nations are moving forward with space and in many ways we are in retreat.  Claudia in Memphis sent in a note asking if classes were taught in aerospace engineering programs on how to change attitudes within the industry.  Dr. Wertz liked the idea but was not aware of classes of that kind.  As the program was ending, he talked about how and who to influence and used the Rachel Carson environmental book “Silent Spring” as an example.  He concluded the discussion by mentioning the Reinventing Space Conference in Los Angeles, Oct. 13-17 (see www.responsivespace.com). He repeated his hope for a positive outcome from sequestration which would be a renewed focus on the need to actually develop systems & the environment to enable reduction of space mission costs, including launch costs.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog.  You can email Dr. Wertz at jwertz@smad.com.

Dr. Eligar Sadeh, Monday, 1-7-13 January 8, 2013

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Dr. Eligar Sadeh, Monday, 1-7-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1925-BWB-2013-01-07.mp3

Guest:  Dr. Eligar Sadeh.  Topics:  Space policy & strategy for 2013, Dr. Sadeh’s new book, and more.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information.  We welcomed back Dr. Eligar Sadeh to discuss his new book, “Space Strategy in the 21st Century: Theory and policy,” as well as space policy and strategy for 2013 and beyond.  If you purchase his book from Amazon using this special URL, Amazon will contribute to The Space Show:  www.amazon.com/Space-Strategy-21st-Century-Politics/dp/0415622115/ref=onegiantlea20.  Dr. Sadeh also talked about the recent SWF sponsored Panel Discussion on Space Policy Challenges Facing the Second Obama Administration as he was a participant in these discussions.  Dr. Sadeh started out with a space industry overview, noting that while there are plans and policies, there are no strategies for implementing plans and policies.  We talked about commercial space and our guest made a point throughout the entire discussion that after decades, not only was there little or no strategy, but that commercial space was still in need of government subsidies.  At one point I pushed Eligar for when he thought the turning point might come for the commercial space sectors  so don’t miss his answer.  We talked about the launch industry, the issue of launch costs, and heard our guest say that only the entrepreneurial sector was completely focused on lowering costs.  Other sectors valued routine and reliable scheduling plus a very high launch reliability over lowering costs.  Over and over Eligar cited the telecommunications industry as the one commercial market now able to stand on its own in a market driven sector.  Other issues talked about with the listeners were GPS, Remote Sensing, Value Propositions of Space, civil space, DOD & National Security space, the U.S. economy, NASA,  space agency budgets, and more.

      In our second segment, Doug and I pressured Dr. Sadeh to tell us what his ideal space strategy would be were he the top dog in space.  With some pushing, Eligar did outline a pathway to a quality national space strategy and said what he thought that strategy should contain.  He also mentioned another small segment interested in lower launch costs, Operationally Responsive Space (ORS).  Later in the segment, I asked for his 2013 scenario for space and he said it would be about the same as 2012, mostly for economic reasons.  Later Doug called & we talked about public/private partnerships with Doug.  As we were ending, we talked about the journal ASTROPOLITICS as Eligar is the editor of it.  We also briefly hit upon space governance, and making space sustainable which represented his closing comments. As promised, I will post on the blog the public/private partnership paper Eligar and I wrote several years ago.  Eligar also asked that I post the Table of Contents of his new book posted on the blog so you will find that there as well.

     Post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog. You can email Dr. Sadeh at esadeh@gmail.com.

Public Private Partnerships 2005   Space Strategy Book Introduction

Futron Space Competitive Index 2012, Monday, 12-3-12 December 4, 2012

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Futron Space Competitive Index 2012, Monday, 12-3-12

Guests: David Vaccaro, Jonathan Beland

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1906-BWB-2012-12-03.mp3

Guests:  David Vaccaro, Jonathan Beland. Topics:  The Futron 2012 Space Competitive Index (SCI).  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information.  We welcomed back David Vaccaro and Jonathan Beland to discuss the Futron 2012 Space Competitive Index (SCI).  You can freely download the SCI Executive Summary at www.futron.com/SCI_2012.xml. The SCI provides annual statistical benchmarks, analysis, and business intelligence for both commercial and national space activities for fifteen countries, examining markers in the Government, Human Capital and sectors.  Five new countries were added for the 2011 data which is used for the 2012 report.  The list of countries analyzed includes the U.S, Brazil, Canada, China, Europe (all of Europe, not the individual European countries), India, Israel, Japan, Russia, S. Korea, Argentina, Australia, Iran, South Africa and the Ukraine.  The five new countries added include Australia, Argentina, Iran, S. Africa, and the Ukraine.  While this program was conducted using two segments, this summary is written without regard to the segments as our discussion points crossed segments throughout the program.  As we started out, our guests provided us with a brief history regarding the SCI and clearly stated its purpose. Note that it is self-financed by Futron and remains completely independent of any & all pressures.  Also, note that again, the U.S. remains the only country of those examined that consistently declines year by year but because our government spending is so huge and our economy, despite our problems is so huge, the U.S. remains in first place as the space industry leader of all those countries studied.  Our guests told us about the benchmarks and how the SCI was constructed.  They responded to lots of listener questions, including questions about why the report is not used by candidates in political campaigns, its potential influence among those in Congress and other policy makers, and the same in other countries.  We talked about the impact of space industry workforce layoffs, the termination of Constellation and the shuttle showing up in the analysis and how such events might impact the U.S. score.  As you will hear, our team expects the 2012 data in the 2013 report to reflect these changes in our space program. A listener asked if the SCI tracked the growth of space advocacy in the U.S., wondering why it is growing but not that much in policy impact.  Other listeners asked about the growth of cubesats, especially in the U.S. and how that was reported.  Also, if ITAR was a limiting factor for the U.S.  Yet another asked our guests if the SCI viewed SpaceX as commercial or government subsidized in the context of the report and its analysis.  When asked about a future country watch list, we talked about Viet Nam, S. Korea, South America and Mexico.  In addition to lots of questions about the U.S., we talked about space in many of the other countries, why they kept investing while the U.S. seemed to be retreating.  Another issue talked about was global positive view of space, embracing more and more countries, views not always held here at home.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog.  Both our guests gave out their Futron email addresses as the program was ending.

Dr. Madhu Thangalevu, Frankie Sharpe, Friday, 6-15-12 June 16, 2012

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Dr. Madhu Thangalevu, Frankie Sharpe, Friday, 6-15-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1796-BWB-2012-06-15.mp3

Guests:  Dr. Madhu Thangalevu, Frankie Sharpe.  Topics:  USC Moon Studio space & architectural project planning and design.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. We welcomed back Professor Madhu Thangalevu who was joined by Frankie Sharpe, one of the architectural graduate students in the USC Moon Studio program that just ended.  Dr. Thangalevu started out by telling us about the USC School of Architecture program and their space studio classes including the Moon Studio, Space Studio, and the program with the engineering department for the Engineering Space Concepts Studio.  Madhu then introduced us to Frankie Sharpe who talked about his lunar tourism project he did for the Moon Studio graduate class.  You can see some of his slides for his project at http://cargocollective.com/frankiesharpedesign/Tour-the-Moon and http://uscmoonstudio.blogspot.com.  In the process of Frankie telling us about his lunar tourism model, he talked about the learning process, the need to address engineering, cost, and human factors for his project, the solutions he developed for dealing with the new NASA guidelines for protecting and visiting the historical Apollo landing sites and more.  You will see how he creatively used holographs for the visitor to experience the actual lunar landings, how radiation issues were resolved, and much more.  I asked Frankie a series of questions about interest in his space work in the regular architectural firms has and is working for & you might be surprised by what he had to say.  You will also find it interesting that prior to being given the opportunity to enroll in the Moon Studio, space was not on his graduate school agenda.

In our second segment, Dr. Thangalevu talked about other USC space studio workshops and then we talked about space policy and the proper role for space in policy and our lives.  Professor Thangalevu talked about large global space projects that involve people everywhere such as planetary defense and climate change research.  We also talked aboutU.S. leadership in global space projects.  One of his suggestions was to consider that it might be time for a U.S. Department of Space to deal with these issues but he did say a paradigm shift had to take place for space to be fully realized.  He then introduced us to the cosmopolitanism concept.  This led us to an interesting discussion about the space “elders” passing the torch to the younger generations for their leadership forward.  During this discussion, we talked about the need to fail, to push to the design & function limits to failure so that something new & better comes from the lessons learned in the failure.  Our last topics included suborbital space, producing nuclear fuel for propulsion on orbit, hydrogen from algae on orbit, a lunar super computer connected to the aging Deep Space Network, and space & spirituality.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog. If you want to email our guests, do so through me & I will forward your email.

Dr. John Jurist, Dr. Haym Benaroya, & DrSpace, Monday, 4-9-12 April 9, 2012

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Dr. John Jurist, Dr. Haym Benaroya, & DrSpace, Monday, 4-9-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1748-BWB-2012-04-09.mp3

Guests:  Dr. John Jurist, Dr. Haym Benaroya.  Topics:  Space policy ideas as presented in our Op-Ed & Open Letter which you can read on The Space Show blog.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed back Drs. Jurist and Benaroya to discuss our two articles to be published regarding U.S. space policy.  You can read the drafts of these two articles on The Space Show blog per the URL above for this particular program and date.  We are asking for your constructive feedback, comments, and questions as our intention is to refine both letters and submit them for publication.  All comments and feedback are welcome but the most useful feedback will offer suggestions for how to make our letters more effective in fostering space policy that supports economic, STEM, and space program growth on the civil side as well as on the private, entrepreneurial, & commercial side.  In addition, The Space Show suggests that listeners write their own 1,000 word Op-Ed and submit it to The Space Show.  I will put it up on the blog, plus offer you time on The Space Show to articulate your perspective and views. We know that some of you will disagree with what we have said and we do want your contribution to the discussion as you will hear during this program.  So do join in on the overall space policy debate.  Don’t just sit on the sidelines, get your ideas out there to advance the discussion.  During our discussion which was 90 minutes without a break, the three of us explained why we decided to write and publish our thoughts on space policy and our future in space, plus we went into some detail as to the content of leach letter.  We fielded several listener questions which offered suggestions as well as critiques of both our approach and our content.  Several of the listener comments offered no suggestions for making the letters more effective, opting instead to tell us where we were going wrong.  Please post your comments, suggestions, and feedback on the blog.  Any emails sent directly to me regarding our letters and this discussion will be posted on the blog in your name without any editing on my part.  If you want to send an email to Dr. Jurist or Dr. Benaroya, please send it to me at drspace@thespaceshow.com and I will gladly forward it for you.

1.  9 April 2012 – Open Letter to Our Government

2.  9 April 2012 – The United States at the Crossroads

AIAA Space Policy Program, Wednesday, 3-15-12 March 15, 2012

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AIAA Space Policy Program, Wednesday, 3-15-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1736-BWB-2012-03-15.mp3

Guests:  Steven Howell; John Rose.  Topics:  AIAA Space Policy Activities.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed Steve Howell and John Rose to this special hour long American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) program on key issues of space policy for the U.S.  Please note that about 17 minutes into the discussion, our conversation was interrupted by music from an unknown source. I had to remove about a three minute section from our discussion due to the unwanted music which is why you will hear a rough edit in the recording.  We started the discussion with Steve giving us an overview of AIAA and its role in both aviation and space policy.  We talked about public space policy, Congress, and the role of industry.  In response to my asking him for the main areas of AIAA policy focus, he listed for us the key issues that have the attention of AIAA.  Don’t miss what he listed and said about each one.  We also talked about the fact that most of the key issues were long term issues.  I focused in on human spaceflight and our guests said we needed a sustainable human space transportation system that was safe and cost effective.  Also such a system should be a high priority.  Our guests were asked if they addressed specific projects such CCDEV or SLS. As you will hear, the AIAA focuses more on the policy, it does not attempt to pick the winners or specific programs relating to a policy.  One of the main discussion points from our guests dealt with workforce issues and making sure we do not lose vital skill sets for both the industry and our nation.  In response to other questions, our guests said that there was a “perfect storm” in Washington, DC regarding space policy, research programs, & civil space.  The lack of a vision was mentioned along with there being no defined mission, goals, or timelines.  Our guests then told us about the AIAA Congressional Visits Day which is open for your participation.  Find out more about it and their plans to personally lobby members of congress by visiting www.aiaa.org/cvd2012.  Listener Mike Snead asked our guests about AIAA policy regarding NASA human spaceflight standards & the NASA level of acceptable risk.  Both our guests had much to say in response to Mike regarding this issue, but for the most part they said AIAA provides technical support and analysis for the policy makers to use in making policy.  This is an important discussion you do not want to miss.  Space workforce issues came up again in our conversation.  Both John and Steve pointed out the key issues, including how the market has changed over the years. Also, how we now compete with countries that used to provide us with much of our special workforce labor.  We also talked about other fields of engineering being more popular with students than space.  Near the end, Dale called in on a bad phone line but he was able to ask about using modern green rocket technology, engines, and fuel rather than old technology and outdated chemical rocket propulsion.  I’m sure you will find the response to be interesting.

If you have questions/comments, post them on The Space Show blog URL above.  If you want to email either of our guests, send your note to me and I will forward it.

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