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Dr. Henry Lambright, Monday, 7-7-14 July 8, 2014

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Dr. Henry Lambright, Monday, 7-7-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2274-BWB-2014-07-07.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Henry Lambright.   Topics: Dr. Lambright’s book “Why Mars” & the politics, policy, history, & methodology of our Mars program.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Professor Henry Lambright of Syracuse University to the show to discuss his excellent book “Why Mars: NASA and the Politics of Space Exploration.”  During the first segment of this 1 hour 33 minute program, Dr. Lambright introduced us to his book and what prompted him to write it.  Dr. Lambright then described three main motivating factors for having our Mars program starting with before NASA with the belief and cultural components suggesting some sort of life on Mars.  Next as a motivating factor dating back from the Von Braun time frame of humans going to Mars.  His third motivating factor had to do with political issues and competition.  Since we were talking about the possibilities of life on Mars, I asked our guest about Viking and the more recent pronouncements by Dr. Gil Levin who has been on TSS several times over the past few years.  Later, Dr. Lambright had many good things to say about our science and robotic program but said our human spaceflight program was in disarray.  Dr. Lambright got several listener emails & phone calls.  He was asked for the WHY behind human spaceflight and that led to a discussion about Big Science. I asked him to define Big Science which he did.  We talked about the NRC Pathways HSF study, then our guest talked about triggers leading to big events and progress, plus the more typical method of moving forward which he called slow evolution.

Jumping forward to our second segment, we talked about the Clinton years in the 90s for policy, Mars Observer & how that loss was turned into a plus for our Mars policy.  Other topics included astronaut risk taking, the void in leadership for space, Mars, and things in general.  Doug called to consolidate all the motivating factors and issues to just one, the need for more money.  He made a good case for this consolidation.  We also talked about the challenges for getting alternative theories seriously considered by NASA, Congress, and policy makers.  The NASA to NACA suggestion came up, we talked about the privates taking over LEO with NASA focusing on BLEO & advanced technologies.  As the program was ending, I asked our guest about the Syracuse student interest in space and Mars, plus our guest left us with an important closing comment.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog. If you want to reach Dr. Lambright, you can do so through me.  Finally, if you buy his book from Amazon, do so through the OGLF Amazon portal so that Amazon will contribute to The Space Show.  Instructions are in each archive write up and on the blog, plus both The Space Show and OGLF websites.

Dr. Brian Laubscher, Sunday, 6-8-14 June 9, 2014

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Dr. Brian Laubscher, Sunday, 6-8-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2258-BWB-2014-06-08.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Bryan Laubscher.  Topics:  Carbon nanotubes, new manufacturing, Space Elevator.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.   For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Dr. Bryn Laubscher back to the program for our 2 hour 22 minute discussion about carbon nanotubes and the Space Elevator.  During our first segment, Dr. Laubscher talked about carbon nanotubes, the manufacturing process, how to move the process and technology forward, end uses for the product, possible timelines for advancement and the current day use of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) in the process.  Bryan talked about the need to find a better process for making carbon nanotubes than CVD.  Later is this segment, Dr. Laubscher was asked about the potential relationship to space other than with the space elevator.  This was an interesting discussion , don’t miss it.

In our second segment, Bryan talked about how hard and challenging the space elevator was and later in the segment, due to a call from Pooley, we went through many of the top challenges faced by the elevator with a status report on each one.  As this segment was opening, I did ask Bryan for a time line for space elevator advancement.  Our guest suggested that at some point, there would be significant demand for the elevator.  Next, we talked about the upcoming International Space Elevator 2014 Conference to be held at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, August 22-24, 2014.  For conference info, visit http://www.spaceelevatorconference.org. John from Ft. Worth called to talk about materials, composites and much more. We also talked about the strength needed for the elevator ribbon and John asked about SSTO.  Blaze emailed us about nuclear waste and Bryan had an interesting take on it. This was another valuable discussion, don’t miss it.  Dr. Laubscher talked about ribbon length, characteristics, strength needed, and its location in space, plus the counter weights it would need.  Adrian emailed several questions to us about the ribbon breaking and related issues.  He also asked our guest radiation issues.  Doug emailed about ways to climb up and down the ribbon.  Some of the other issues that came up were wind, lightening, ribbon oscillation, space debris, policy & regulatory issues.  As our program was ending, Bryan offered us words of wisdom and said his company website was http://www.odysseustech.com.  In addition, Dr. Peter Swan emailed us about his paper on the elevator which you can download and read at  http://www.virginiaedition.com/media/spaceelevators.pdf.

Post your comments/questions on TSS blog.  You can reach Dr. Laubscher through his website or me.

Clay Mowry, Tuesday, 6-3-14 June 4, 2014

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Clay Mowry, Tuesday, 6-3-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2255-BWB-2014-06-03.mp3

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Guest:  Clayton (Clay) Mowry.  Topics:  Arianespace, launch industry, reusability, launch price and satellite capacity.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.  We welcomed back Clay Mowry to the program to discuss Arianespace and the launcher industry.  During the first segment of our 90 minute discussion, we took on the subject of the upcoming last EASA ATV 5 flight to the ISS.  Mr. Mowry explained why this program to the ISS was ending and that after this last flight, there would be only one vehicle capable of boosting the ISS.  He talked about U.S. priorities in building up cargo capability to the ISS without boost capability over commercial crew.  We also talked about the life expectancy of the ISS amid the current controversies with Russia and the US.  I asked Clay for a brief history of the launcher Ariane 5 and we learned that they now have 59 successful launches for this rocket.  Our guest talked about Ariane 5 performance capabilities plus upgrades that are in progress for an Ariane 5 ME.  We talked about launch price/cost and its relationship to how customers determine what launcher to use.  As he said the last time he was on the show, customers need launcher reliability and the ability to launch on schedule.  Launch costs are an overall factor of the total risk of the launcher, the value of the satellite, opportunity costs, infrastructure costs, and more.  This is a very informative discussion and it continued into the second segment.  Our guest also said that human spaceflight poses different issues than launching telecommunications satellites and is more sensitive to launch costs.  Listeners asked about government subsidies to Arianespace and their not turning a profit despite their commercial success. This opened up a discussion about all forms of government subsidies, including the methods used in the U.S. to subsidize and support our launcher industry.  We talked about the planned new Ariane 6 rocket and its differences with Ariane 5.  We also talked about rocket development time lines.  Rocket reusability came up and this proved to be a great discussion topic that continued into the second segment.  Clay provided us with very important perspectives regarding reusability.  Dr. Jurist called to go deeper into the issue of launch pricing, insurance, and related items. Don’t miss it.  Clay referenced several studies on this subject including the Futron NASA Ascent Study which examined launch costs among other things.  Our guest talked about ways the satellite industry is working to reduce launch costs by making satellites more powerful and lighter.  They are also starting to use ion propulsion which can cut up to 40% of the mass of the satellite which makes launches lower in cost. With more efficient satellites, longer life spans, and other advancements, its possible to see launch cost improvements up to around 20%.

In the second segment, I asked Clay what it would take to human rate the Ariane 5.  After he explained the requirements, he said their company focus was on satellites.  He mentioned Liberty Rocket, then John from Ft. Worth called in to talk about costs, depots, reusability, & just how many flights can a reusable rocket make, plus insurance risk evaluation for reusability.  Clay talked about reusability economics and risks in depth in this segment, explaining the variables and unknowns. This is an important discussion so don’t miss it.  Later by email, Jim asked about increased satellite efficiency & advanced capabilities lowering the launch rate.  Clay did not think so due to content advances and increases that offset the satellite advancements.  Again, another important discussion topic. In fact, we spent most of the balance of the program on this subject.  In concluding, Clay said the business was even more exciting today than when he joined the industry and later Arianespace.  The final listener comment asked about the launchers being the unsung heroes of our modern society.  Clay summarized that reusability had many market, technical, & economic unknowns, that HSF probably was better suited for it than satellites, & that commercial communication satellite customers need reliability & on time launches as part of their business models.

Post your comments/questions on TSS blog.  You can reach Clay Mowry through me.

 

Mark Fisher, Friday, 5-16-14 May 17, 2014

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Mark Fisher, Friday, 5-16-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2244-BWB-2014-05-16.mp3

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Guest:  Mark Fisher.  Topic:  Commercial & Civil space, Schafer Corp space activities, space exploration/development.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Mark Fisher, VP, General Manager & Director of Huntsville Operations for Schafer Corporation (www.schafercorp.com.  During the first segment of our 1 hour 25 minute discussion, Mark Fisher introduced us to the Schafer Corporation which has in excess of 40 years experience and activity in the civil, commercial, DOD, & the government space industry.  We honed in on civil and commercial and Mark talked about Bigelow Aerospace, Stratolaunch, the entrepreneurial community, and NewSpace.  This discussion took us to new technologies and here Mark said that NewSpace was providing lots of new technology.  We also talked about human spaceflight and its growth, particularly on the NewSpace side of things.  Listener Jack emailed in a question about the wisdom of international partnerships to which Mark had much to say.  I asked our guest about overlapping areas with DOD & commercial space, then about pursuing ROIs from space activities & projects & if that was a big switch from just a decade ago.  That brought up a discussion about business models and the role Schafer plays with clients in business as well as with engineering as Schafer is an engineering company.  One point made continuously by our guest was that space investment leads to results but its an ebb & flow over the long haul.  We talked about space technology, computer, and electronic advances, plus changes over time in materials and optics.  The subject of launch vehicles & the industry came up, especially with cubesats, SpaceX & Orbital.  Pooley called in to talk once again about small launchers & Microlaunchers.  At one point he commented that Leo, being too crowded, should be abandoned for escape orbital opportunities.  Both Mark & I had some interesting comments per what Charles was talking about.

In the second segment we talked about the U.S. capability to build new launchers & engines but we also talked about the high costs and long development & testing time in doing so.  Mark shared with us his rocket motor development experience.  We talked about Mark’s Schafer team, the development of an internship program at Schafer, and Shafer employment opportunities.  A listener asked about difference in approach to the public, civil, & commercial side of space projects & the need for commercial to fund itself.  We talked about wireless medial monitoring, miniaturization, & other space spinoff technologies.  Much was said about the biomedical push by NASA.  I asked about the once robust Huntsville space economy which has had some issues in recent years. An inquiry was made about DOD, Mars technology development, sharing tools with NASA, and if we needed to make weapons to advance technology.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog. If you want to contact our guest, you can do so through me.

Dr. Clay Moltz, Friday, 4-11-14 April 12, 2014

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Dr. Clay Moltz, Friday, 4-11-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2226-BWB-2014-04-11.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Clay Moltz.  Topics: We discussed our guest’s new book, “Crowded Orbits: Conflict and Cooperation in Space,” plus numerous related topics.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back Dr. Clay Moltz to the show to discuss his new book “Crowded Orbits: Conflict and Cooperation in Space.”  Please remember to buy this book through the OGLF/The Space Show Amazon portal so Amazon will contribute to The Space Show.  Our Amazon instructions are in every archive summary and on each Space Show blog entry.  During the first segment of our 90 minute discussion, Dr. Moltz told us why he wrote the book which was to address orbital crowding, possible conflict in space and to bring these issues and others to the attention of the general public as space impacts everyone everyday.  A major topic for our discussion was space debris.  Using this field as an example, Dr. Moltz  made a very strong case for rules of the road, space traffic control issues, and responsible behavior by both governments and the private sector.  We talked about entrepreneurs and private groups resisting a more regulated environment and he made the case for the need for cooperation to avoid conflicts.  Early in his book, he outlined three significant points of view regarding the debate over space policy, ranging from conflict & the military use of space was inevitable so prepare for it to avoiding problems by piecemeal global engagement to increasing the use of international space projects through international governance.  Dr. Moltz received many email questions challenging a regulated environment and the need for more controls on space businesses and operations.  We talked about the cubesat technology and growth of the industry, the lack of registration, & as the industry grows, possible crowding problems.  We also discussed the U.N. treaties that seem to cover what we were talking about so why the need for more agreements & regulations?

In our second segment, we continued our human spaceflight discussion from the end of the first segment, plus we looked at space in other countries.  We mostly focused on China, India, Iran, and North Korea among others.  We talked about large scale industries that may develop over time such as SSP.  GPS was an example, then a listener asked about cyberwarfare & the impact on space policy.  Toward the end of the program, I asked about space interest among students at the Naval Postgraduate School. Students are very interested space and the subjects discussed in Clay’s book and on today’s show.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog.  You can reach Dr. Moltz through me.

Dr. Doug Plata, Sunday, 3-16-14 March 17, 2014

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Dr. Doug Plata, Sunday, 3-16-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2208-BWB-2014-03-16.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Doug Plata.  Topics:  Selected trades for the Cis-Lunar One Transportation Architecture as developed by Dr. Plata.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. Please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back Dr. Doug Plata to the show to discuss his selected trades for his Cis-Lunar One Transportation Architecture.  You can find Doug’s Choices of Selected Trades document on The Space Show blog at http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com under the summary for this particular program and date.  In the first segment of our 2 hour 6 minute discussion, Dr. Plata started out giving us an overview of his project, mostly by reading to us the “Overview of the Cis-lunar One Architecture” which is part of his document on our blog.  In addition, Dr. Plata wants your feedback regarding his project, including constructive criticism.  You can email Dr. Plata at dougspace007@gmail.com.  After discussing the project overview with us, Doug started addressing the trades listed in his document.  We started with Trade 1 Launcher.  Doug went through all of his considerations for launchers, was clear that he was not ruling any particular rocket out of the question.  Make sure you note his “Table1: Choice of Launcher & Fuel.”  The led us to discussing payload issues for the mission.  Also note that Doug has named his lunar craft the Condor upper state LL as you will see that name show up throughout our discussion.  Doug then went to Trade #2 and discussed propellant choices.  Note his Table showing the specifics of his Choice of Fuels assuming 53 tons at LEO and a 15% dry mass.  He received several listener questions, including questions about where to on the Moon.  See Trade 8 Initial Landing Sites for his choices and reasoning.  We skipped to Trade 12 Power in Shadows.  He discussed power options in some detail and went through the four options listed in this trade.  Mary Beth sent in some questions asking Doug about his propulsion discussion and Marshall called in with a series of questions about ice and the regolith.  Doug then took us to Trade 17 Repairs.

In our second segment, Doug started with Trade 17 repairs, focusing on redundancy, spare parts, & surface equipment easy designs.  Later in the segment, Dr. Plata was asked about lunar dust and maintenance/problems for the equipment.  A listener emailed him about market possibilities, our guest fielded other listener email questions and then Doug addressed Trade 9 Landed Configurations including belly landings and tail landings. Trade 14 Surface Equipment was discussed, then John called in to talk about a needed detailed lunar surface survey.  I asked our guest for his detailed cost projections for his mission followed by his next step in promoting his architecture.  He talked about having called his Congressman, Representative Mark Takano.

Please post comments/questions/feedback on TSS blog per above.  You can also email Dr. Plata at his above email address, plus its on his trade document which is on TSS blog.

Classroom with Drs. John Jurist & Jim Logan, Tuesday, 12-17-13 December 16, 2013

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Classroom with Drs. John Jurist & Jim Logan, Tuesday, 12-17-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2145-BWB-2013-12-17.mp3

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Guests:  Dr. Jim Logan, Dr. John Jurist.  Topics: This was a Classroom show on radiation issues for deep space travel, Mars and Moon settlements.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.

We welcomed Dr. Jim Logan and Dr. John Jurist to this special 2.5 hour Space Show classroom in-depth discussion on space radiation. We focused our discussion on deep space, Mars, the Moon and BLEO missions. Note that on both The Space Show blog (see above) and The Space Show Classroom blog (http://spaceshowclassroom.wordpress.com),  Dr. Jurist has a Power Point presentation on radiation.  During the program, our guests referred to specific slides that you will want to check out.  In our first segment, Dr. Logan started out by telling us about his interest in the subject, why he has been writing a paper on the subject for publication, and how this Classroom show came about.  He cited our short duration spaceflight experience, the Apollo missions, Space Shuttle flights, and then how things started to change when we had six month ISS visits.  Dr. Logan also made it clear that space was not a benign emptiness type of environment.  He said the reality was that interplanetary space was a sea of disruptive ionizing radiation wrecking havoc on biologic systems.  We moved forward in our discussion from that point.  We talked about the findings of the MSL RAD instrument regarding radiation on the way to Mars and on the surface of Mars.  Both John and Jim spent some time putting the RAD numbers through analysis to let us know what this means for human missions to Mars.  We talked shielding, possible materials, passive and active.  We talked extensively about water and the use of hydrogen as well for shielding.  Our guests addressed the two types of radiation, the GCR (galactic cosmic rays) and the CME/solar flare.  Here, John suggested listeners look at his slide 13 as we talked about protons and neutrons.  Jim said there was no magic bullet and talked about shielding effects of Earth’s atmosphere.  Pay attention here as Jim introduced us to the  RP scale.  For being on the surface, he said nothing less than RP100 would suffice.  For the vehicle, an RP5 was required.  John introduced us to career limits for radiation for men and women astronauts of different age but the career limits are for LEO and not BLEO.  BLEO limits are expected to be more restrictive when made public in April 2014.  Earth Mars transit times were discussed, especially in the context of Brian’s email that suggested a 180 day transit time.  Both our guests said that was unlikely with chemical propulsion and all of us again stressed the need for nuclear thermal propulsion.  Microgravity was talked about, especially in the context of side effects due to the radiation environment.  Jim then brought up the EVA subject and spacesuits.  Briefly, Jim said that quite possibly the ISS construction represented the zenith of EVAs which may become a thing of the past.  Don’t miss why he said this plus his description of serious spacesuit limitations.  We talked about life support to Mars and here Jim suggested we should use Open Loop! Again, listen to the rational behind this recommendation.  Don’t miss what our guests said about theories & movies making it sound easy to go to Mars and that the radiation would be nothing more than just a few more cigarette packs a year.  Our last topic addressed informed consent issues.

In the second segment, I asked our guests for a readiness timetable were there sufficient funding and technology advancements.  I also inquired if Russia, China, and others assessed the radiation risks in a similar way to the U.S.  We then talked about radiation and space pregnancy, fetus development, birth, and informed consent for the fetus, a baby, and a child under 18.  Ethical issues regarding child birth and space pregnancy were talked about as well.  Curt had sent in email questions which our guests answered, especially about drinking irradiated water and microgravity DNA damage & what this may mean for radiation effects.  Next, I asked Jim and John to tell us their 2-5 steps for the start of designing a Mars human mission.  Jim went first and listed Day 1 and Day 2 activities, John listed his top three priorities which were different than those suggested by Jim.  Don’t miss this discussion as its very instructive as to how to do or at least start mission planning for a human mission BLEO.  Roger sent in a question asking if the crew should be senior citizens since they have more resistance to radiation.  Don’t miss what our guests said about this idea.  It may surprise you.  Our next topic was would going to Deimos be easier.  Yes, it would but it would be a very different kind of human  mission.  Jim had some great comments about Mars gravity.  Briefly, he said it was the “best.” Later, when asked to compare the Moon and Mars, our guests said lunar radiation was worse than Mars.  Also, the Mars atmosphere does provide limited shielding while there is no such thing on the Moon.  Jim had earlier talked about a sphere being the perfect shape for an interplanetary spaceship.  Shelia emailed in wanting to know if heavy lift made a difference and if the sphere was so good, why were capsules being used? Don’t miss the response.  We then talked about the complexities of rendezvous and docking, especially in the context of fewer launches (heavy lift) as compared to many more launches (smaller rockets).  Near the end, I asked our guests if either thought our nation, the public, NASA, our leaders and politicians were sufficiently motivated to do a human Mars mission.  Jim did not think so and had much more to say in reply to this question.  John was more pessimistic.  Both thought it was more likely that the private sector would mount a human Mars mission rather than our seeing a government mission, but raising the needed capital might turn out to be a show stopper.  The three of us then talked about what it was like growing up in the 40′s, 50′s, and 60′s as compared to today.  John and I (John is a bit more than 2 years older than me) were probably more harsh than Jim in our assessment of today, but we all realize that the younger generations will be taking us to space, building the next smartphone and more. I talked about my visits to Google, Apple, SpaceX, etc. and the excitement in the air in belonging in their work forces which does not seem to exist with NASA. This opened the door for Jim to put it on the line about his NASA experiences and the potential opportunities providing NASA can somehow reorganize.  He did not think the type of reorganization he was talking about would happen.  Both our guests left us with excellent takeaway points and concluding pearls of wisdom.

Please post your comments/questions on the blogs. You can reach either of our guests through me.

                                                  Radiation Biophysics and Human Spaceflight

Robert (Bob) Zimmerman, Tuesday, 12-3-13 December 4, 2013

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Robert (Bob) Zimmerman, Tuesday, 12-3-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2135-BWB-2013-12-03.mp3

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Guest:  Robert (Bob) Zimmerman.  Topics:  launch competition, commercial space, China, gov. space programs, budget issues.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.

We welcomed back Bob Zimmerman for his Tenth Anniversary Space Show program!  During the first segment of this two hour two minute program, Bob addressed many issues and listener concerns starting with the SpaceX Falcon 9 GEO launch success & the looking back to his first Space Show program on Dec. 3, 2003.  He compared and contrasted his comments then to those today. He also blogged about this on his Behindtheblack.com blog at http://behindtheblack.com/behind-the-black/essays-and-commentaries/exciting-times-in-space.  Listeners expressed their concern about the Chinese space program, their recent lunar landing mission and the day when they can put a human on the Moon.  Listeners wanted to know if this would spark a new space race between China and the U.S.  Bob said no and I agreed with him for slightly different reasons.  However, one of Bob’s consistent and recurring themes (and tonight’s discussion was no different) is that he opposes large government space programs as he says they don’t work.  He provided much evidence for this during our discussion.  During this segment we also talked extensively about launch competition and the benefits from competition in the marketplace.  Listener Al asked about DOD space and if DOD might see the Chinese space program differently.  Bob also mentioned space property rights and he said the existing situation should change based on U.S. law as the model for commercial space to flourish.  There was more talk about the Chinese program which Bob was not too concerned about.  Listen for his reasoning.  John in Ft. Worth called in to also talk about the Chinese program and suggested at some point their success might just humiliate the U.S. into competitive action.  Neither Bob or I thought it was likely that anything would humiliate congress today.  John and Bob then had an interesting discussion on this subject.

In Part 2 of our program, Dr. Lurio called in to talk about being thrilled to the bone by the SpaceX launch and to comment on NewSpace & commercial space issues. Like Bob, he opposes SLS as a big waste.  Bob and Charles then talked about their distaste for large gov. programs such as what JFK created, again saying they don’t work.  Both wondered what space and other things would look like today had JFK not been assassinated.  Dream Chaser was mentioned, again as everyone’s favorite spacecraft.  Al emailed in again to point out the differences in the space perspective of seniors and young people.  Tim called in to mention the Code of Conduct issue with possible international launch standards and how this might hurt the developing US commercial launch business.  I mentioned a Business Week article saying the suborbitals are going to look to R&D flights for repeat customers which they definitely need. Here is the article: www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-11-27/spaceflight-companies-virgin-galactic-xcor-blue-origin-eye-r-and-d-clients.  Toward the end of the program there was more talk about SLS, NASA budget issues, the need to cancel SLS per Bob’s perspective, and economic risks posed to NASA’s planetary science program.  Bob closed out the program with his comments on Inspiration Mars and Mars One, plus a Von Braun comment from 1954 in which it was reported that he said it would take 100 years of research in space to travel to Mars.  Bob said its been 60 years so far and we do not have the capability to do a human flight to Mars today.  Lurio mailed in the last comment about the NASA press conference earlier in the day with his and Bob’s reading that the planetary program was all but dead financially.  The final comments dealt with SLS and the Redirect Mission which Bob completely discounted.

Post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog.  Contact Bob through his blog or zimmerman at nasw dot org.

Dan Adamo, Dr. Jim Logan, Dr. John Jurist, Tuesday, 11-19-13 November 19, 2013

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THE SPACE SHOW CLASSROOM

Dan Adamo, Dr. Jim Logan, Dr. John Jurist, Tuesday, 11-19-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2125-BWB-2013-11-19.mp3

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Guests:  Dan Adamo, Dr. Jim Logan, Dr. John Jurist.  Topics:  “Trajectory Challenges Faced By Orbiting Infrastructure Supporting Multiple Earth Departures For Mars.”  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.

Welcome to this special Space Show Classroom program with Dan Adamo, Dr. Logan, Dr. Jurist, and myself.  There was no break during this 2 hour 21 minute discussion which at times was very technical.  For those of you interested in missions to Mars, orbiting space infrastructure including depots, Earth & LEO departure points, mission and launch trades, payload issues and trades, radiation concerns, and more, you will find this discussion to be extremely informative and educational.  Guest Dan Adamo took us through the charts and graphs which you can access on either The Space Show Blog or The Space Show Classroom blog ((see http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com and http://spaceshowclassroom.wordpress.com).  Access the document ReuseForMars to follow the MP3 audio transcript. The other document on the blogs is a longer white paper version of the .pdf we used for last night’s discussion.  Dan introduced the topic to us, talked about his tangential work in this area at JSC last summer and the space community interest in orbiting infrastructure, especially fuel depots.  Dan then took us through the .pdf document discussing and explaining each chart and graph.  Rather than report on his page by page discussion, note that Jim, John, and I asked lots of questions per each chart and graph as did listeners by email and later in the discussion by phone.  Some of the main points and take aways from this discussion focused on inclination, launch location, penalties and advantages relating to orbiting infrastructure reuse for Earth departures to interplanetary destinations. For example, Russian launch sites are far to the north and will not be as efficient for Mars launches as sites to the south.  But as Doug discovered when he asked about equatorial launches, they benefit from a boost due to the inertial rotation of the Earth for higher initial launch speed, but otherwise there is no real benefit from the equatorial launch because minimum Earth orbit inclination is imposed by interplanetary geometry.  Another important point had to do with the reuse of orbital infrastructure.  As you will hear, it’s virtually worthless to reuse infrastructure in low Earth orbit to support Mars mission departure, including a depot, unless it can be repurposed for something else other than a Mars mission.  Don’t miss Dan’s explanation of this.  While we talked about Earth departure windows for Mars at two year intervals, we learned that not all these windows are equal.  Here, using the tables in Dan’s document, we were able to see just how unequal the Earth departure windows can be.  We talked a lot about Elliptical Earth Parking Orbit (EEPO) and the relationships with apogee and perigee for our payload departures for Mars.  Later, Dan outlined how we can “store” the cryo in the upperstage of our rocket as kinetic energy in the EEPO shortly after launch, a way to store the cryo energy without having to mitigate boiloff or transfer it between spacecraft.  Much was said about radiation and when you go through the trajectories and see them plotted as Dan has done, we learned that not all trajectories are equal as to radiation exposure.  Other important elements of our discussion that we focused on included the trans-Mars Injection (TMI) and asymptotic Earth departure velocity (v_infinity).  Listener Jimmy emailed us about another paper by a Goddard team that Dan was familiar with and he used some of their data and research.  Access their poster at www.lpi.usra.edu/sbag/science/NHATS_Accessible_NEAs_Summary.png (note you may need to cut & paste the URL in your browser).  As Dan & our Classroom panel went through charts, graphs, & tables, we applied the information to launches Earth departures in 2020 and 2022.  It was valuable to see how the constraints change, not always for the better either.  Note that we started with a 400 KM orbit but later dropped it to about 340 km above earth.  I suspect you will find the changing constraints and parameters to be more than interesting.  Near the end, Doug called in to ask about the reuse of the repurposing orbital infrastructure, including depots, as possible infrastructure for the Moon or a cislunar project.  Not only is this a possibility, we learned that something like the orbits that would be involved in doing this were used for the recent NASA GRAIL Mission.  During our discussion throughout the program, we talked about the two Mars missions now en route to Mars, Maven and the Indian mission Mangalyaan.  Note what was said about Mangalyaan and how it is making use of the type of information we discussed in this program to do a lower energy mission to Mars.  In fact, one of the hot topics of our discussion was the comparison between long-way trajectories and short-way trajectories to Mars, what each means for arrival at Mars, capture by Mars, and the return to Earth and capture by Earth.  The reentry speed coming back to Earth is crucial as these speeds can be extremely fast with lots of heat to dissipate.  Keeping speeds below 12k/s for a human Mars mission is vital.

Please post your comments/questions on our blogs and we will do our best to respond to you.  If you want to reach any of our guests, do so through me using drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Dan’s charts and graphs are here:  MultipleMarsDeparturesR1

To best follow tonight’s discussion, refer to;  ReuseForMars

Dr. Dmitriy Tseliakhovich, Sunday, 6-9-13 June 10, 2013

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Dr. Dmitriy Tseliakhovich, Sunday, 6-9-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2025-BWB-2013-06-09.mp3

Guest:  Dr. Dmitriy Tseliakhovich.  Topics:  Escape Dynamics microwave beam propulsion for launches.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information.

We welcomed Dr. Dmitriy Tseliakhovich, CEO & CTO of Escape Dynamics (http://escapedynamics.com) to discuss their work on making microwave beamed propulsion possible for space launch.  During our 1 hour 39 minute discussion, Dr. Tseliakhovich talked about his background and passion for space, including helping to open up commercial space.  His work and experience led him to creating Escape Dynamics in 2010 to find a better and more efficient way to space than by using chemical rockets.  Dmitriy then took us through many of the benefits of external launch, including a higher specific impulse, better payload ratios, and even the ability to use an SSTO frame for the vehicle.  During this segment, we also talked about safety issues and using the possibility of using the technology as a space weapon.  During this discussion, Dmitriy was very focused and precise in saying that their systems had to prove out as being safe on all of the issues we were discussing. Next, we learned that the initial beamed propulsion vehicles would be robotic but at some point in the future, eventually crewed launch vehicles would be possible.  We talked about their step by step incremental development and testing plan, including starting with suborbital launches.  I asked our guest about the probable cost of electricity and support from the existing electrical grid.  Our guest had much to say about the cost of electricity, the use of the grid for their power needs & the capability of existing systems to support their needs.  He also did not rule out partnerships with utility companies.  Listeners sent him emails asking about competition and markets as well as the use of hydrogen for fuel.  Our guest was also asked about their heat exchanger, a key component on the vehicle.

In our second segment, Dmitriy was asked about weather issues for launch & we learned that there were concerns and requirements suggesting launching in dry areas would be best.  Another listener asked about ocean launch possibilities & Charles called in expressing skepticism, to support chemical rockets, and to raise questions about the high g force, boost stations, and the size of the ground array needed for the beam propulsion launch system. Roger emailed us to ask about orbital fuel depots & beamed propulsion.  We then talked about the company timeline & learned about 2015 as a suborbital launch target date.  In response to an email about the main challenges, our guest said the challenges to the system were mostly non-technical.  John was our last caller asking about DARPA, project financing, fuels, and more. In closing we talked about available internships and the hiring opportunities at Escape Dynamics.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog.  You can contact our guest through his website or by using drspace@thespaceshow.com.

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