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Wayne Eleazer, Monday, 11-16-15 November 17, 2015

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Wayne Eleazer, Monday, 11-16-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2586-BWB-2015-11-16.mp3

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Guest:  Wayne Eleazer. Topics:  Launch failures and why they happen.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Wayne Eleazer to the show to discuss the history and why of rocket launch failures per the many articles he has written over the years on these subjects for The Space Review.  In the first segment of our 1 hour 58 minute discussion, Wayne started us off responding to my question about the most dramatic launch failure he has seen or studied.  He talked about a spectacular Titan failure so don’t miss his story.  Michael Listner called and talked about many topics including Air Force mishap reports.  What Wayne had to say about the mishap reports and the Air Force candor regarding launch failures was very interesting and informative.  Wayne introduced us to the Oops Factor regarding failures, a concept he used in an earlier Space Review article.  This refers to one thing causing the launch failure but the people down the line with oversight responsibility all miss it or “oops!”  SpaceX and the Falcon 9 problems came up many times but here Wayne talked about the needed culture in a company to deal with launch failures, learn from them, and work to keep them from happening again.  He thought SpaceX was doing all of that.  He also talked about Orbital ATK and the Antares and their culture, then I asked him about the SpaceShip2 failure/accident.  Near the end of the first segment, Jay asked Wayne if military rockets had similar launch failure problems.  Wayne’s response about the military rocket motor, its reliability, testing, and costs was most illuminating.  As we learned, the military rocket motor stands alone in quality.

In the second segment, Wayne was asked if he could spot trends that cause launch failures over and over again.  He said no but listen to his complete answer.  He called this the “Predictables” and is completing a new Space Review article on this subject.  He listed several examples including his use of the Challenger loss as well as Delta and Atlas failures.  I asked him if on the military side, there were consequences for military personnel with responsibility and oversight duties, maybe a demotion, court martial, anything.  You might be surprised by his answer to this question.  We talked more about the Falcon 9 and EELVs in this segment, plus the old Thor and the Atlas.  Barry asked Wayne about Russian launch failures.  Wayne talked about the Russian culture and problems.  Near the end, he said EELV reliability was improving.  He made some additional Atlas and Falcon 9 comparisons, then I asked if there was an expected failure rate for these rockets.  Wayne suggested if a company survives ten launches, their odds for survival improve greatly.  Doug asked about fairing issues. Wayne talked about the ways that a fairing can open up and we talked about the recent Taurus failures due to fairing problems.  Doug followed up his question asking about the reliability for the Falcon Heavy.  Wayne had much to say about reliability and strap on rockets &the odds of a failure by strapping rockets together.  You might be surprised by what he said.  I asked him about modular all purpose, all mission rockets, complexity vs. simplicity, small start-up launch operations and the SLS.  In concluding the show, he talked about the value in understanding launch failures.  He talked about education on launch failures and why it has been so hard for people to be open minded and learn from rocket failures.  At one point, he mentioned an older German rocket company building an ugly pipe rocket, OTRAG.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog.  You can reach Wayne through me.

James (Jim) Faist, Tuesday, 9-2-14 September 3, 2014

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James (Jim) Faist, Tuesday, 9-2-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2308-BWB-2014-09-02.mp3

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Guest:  James (Jim) Faist.  Topics:  Military space, commercial space, NASA, launches, military use of cubesats & UAVs.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Jim Faist to the program for this 63 minute discussion.  We started our first and only segment by inquiring about military space and possible synergies with commercial space.  Mr. Faist cited communication satellites of all types including Direct TV, high bandwidth space communications platforms and infrastructure, plus the push to deep space.  Our guest talked about the new optical coms with much higher bandwidth.  I asked Jim about the time lags from R&D to military space operations to NASA and civil space, then to commercial space companies.  Jim estimated about 5-8 years to military space and about ten years to civil space.  An email listener asked about DoD launches being able to serve as drivers for NASA and commercial space to increase by increasing the launch rate to drive down launch costs.  We then talked about priorities for military space.  Here, we learned that DOD is very concerned with costs but the priority is the mission.   Costs are just one part of the mission priorities..  In general, DOD likes and wants competition and lower prices are important.  One of the points our guest made was that other space nations can spend more on R&D and new projects than we do as a percentage of their budgets since we have to maintain older technology & infrastructure while others that are newer to space don’t have the legacy issues to support & finance.  This brought up a question by Carl who wanted to know if satellite on orbit servicing was worth it or would it be better to go for the new hardware.  The DOD usage of cubesats came up and we compared cubesats to smallsats and finally to the use of UAVs.  You will find the comparisons interesting.  A listener asked about the SpaceX-Air Force lawsuit.  Here, Jim talked about the process for DOD requirements for confidence in launchers and at one point suggested it might be a ten year long process.  I also asked our guest about our building a new rocket motor to replace the RD-180.  Another question focused on the possible DOD use of SLS and heavy lift.  AF Space Command came up as did responsive space and a comparison of that to UAVs.  We talked about DOD public/private partnerships or joint partnerships with civil/commercial space.  Lunar outposts and cislunar space were mentioned as well as the concept of a Space Guard modeled after the Coast Guard. Near the end, I asked about suborbital space tourism/science missions.  Jim mentioned using sounding rockets to test & flight qualify space hardware.  He thought the suborbitals would be good for that.  TRLs came up again & we talked about the role of the Schafer Corp in military space plus their current need for people & their current hiring needs.  Cubesats came up again, especially concerning enough launches and what it might mean for cubesats if they carry propulsion with them as that makes it hard to fly as a secondary payload.  In response to launch issues, he said it was not enough to just focus on the cubesats, the launch side of the business must also be considered & addressed.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog.  You can contact Mr. Faist through me or the Schafer Corp website (www.schafercorp.com).

Dr. Paul Spudis, Friday, 6-20-14 June 19, 2014

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Dr. Paul Spudis, Friday, 6-20-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2266-BWB-2014-06-20.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Paul Spudis.  Topics:  Dr. Spudis provided us with an overview and analysis of the NRC “Pathways to Exploration: Rationales and Approaches for a U.S. Program of Human Space Exploration.”  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back to the show Dr. Paul Spudis to discuss the NRC Human Spaceflight Study report recently released. You can download the report for free at http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=18801.  Please note that this program was broadcast and recorded live on Wednesday, June 18, 2014.  It is being archived on Friday, 6-20-24 as there will be no live show on Friday due to the host travel schedule.  During the first segment of our 1 hour 36 minute program, Dr. Spudis first walked us through the NRC nearly 300 page study, hitting the highlights, raising questions, talking about what was good in the report and disappointing in it.  We talked about the rational for human spaceflight, for Mars, also the Moon.  We noted the absence of economic development in the report and this gave Dr. Spudis several openings to talk about his ideas for cislunar economic development.  Listeners asked lots of email questions ranging from budget issues, to SpaceX and rocket reusability.  Paul described much of what the study suggested as a form of “Apollo to Mars.”  Near the end of this segment we talked about public/private partnerships and learned that the Pathways study was only addressing public programs.  A listener asked Dr. Spudis what he thought the impact of the study might be and sitting on a shelf somewhere seemed a plausible answer.

In the second segment, Dr. Spudis focused on the response to the report and ways to actually develop a quality space program.  He talked about the need for a space transportation system, space infrastructure, and to use an incremental approach.  Robotics were discussed, we talked about the space media, and Dr. Spudis reminded us a few times that if there is no infrastructure, there can be no institutional use and capability.  We also compared the Apollo period and JFK’s goal for the Moon compared to now.  Its an interesting discussion, especially since we no longer have many of the skill sets we had back then.  The value of the Moon and commercial space came up & we talked about promoting the value to policy makers.  In supporting his incremental approach, Paul referenced a bit of US naval history.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog.  Check out Paul’s blog, http://www.spudislunarresources.com.  You can contact Dr. Spudis through his blog or me.

Anthony Young, Sunday, 3-23-14 March 24, 2014

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Anthony Young, Sunday, 3-23-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2213-BWB-2014-03-23.mp3

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Guest:  Anthony Young.  Topics:  The Saturn V & F-1 engine, lunar programs & more.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Anthony Young to the program to discuss his book “The Saturn V F-1 Engine: Powering Apollo into History.  This is an excellent book which I strongly recommend.  Remember, if you buy it through the OGLF Amazon portal, Amazon makes a contribution to The Space Show.  During the first segment of our two hour program, Mr. Young started out talking about the book and why he wrote it.  Since our guest had also written books car engines, I asked him if there were comparisons to be made with the F-1 & the large, complex, & powerful car engines. We also talked about potential plans to rebuild and modernize the F-1 for either the SLS or as a possible engine replacement for the Air Force RD-180.  Anthony did say that it would not be a rebuild of the F-1 but a complete remake of it with modern manufacturing, materials, etc.  Another topic discussed was the F-1 thrust for a new engine.  Marshall called to talk about fuel propellants for the F-1 and air pollution.  This gave Anthony the opportunity to talk about ATK and their efforts to modernize the SRB & solid rocket propellant.  Anthony suggested that we need advanced propulsion for humans to Mars to significantly reduce the transit time, not a new F-1.  Michael called in & talked about SLS being needed to preserve the expertise & knowhow for making large rockets & flying them.  He also spoke about some of his upcoming Space Review articles on the Code of Conduct & other subjects.  He brought to our attention a YouTube video, “The Engines That Came Out Of The Cold” (www.youtube.com/watch?v=MZnYr94aa9E).  Mr. Young was asked about the existence of NASA lunar programs.  He mentioned several including Lunar CATALYST but suggested they were small robotic missions.  He did not think there were NASA human flights planed for the Moon.  Dwayne called to shed further light on NASA and lunar programs.  He also spoke about the F-1 thrust for a new engine.

In the second segment, John called from Ft. Worth.  He spoke about technology and performance for the engine, other programs now cancelled & the logic of having stayed the course.  He brought up good points on our losing our technology capability, then Anthony addressed many of the NASA KSC infrastructure changes going on to partner with the commercial industry.  Doug called to talk about some of the lunar program comments, to offer a different perspective on SLS, & public/private partnerships as well as international participation.  Anthony was asked for his thoughts on where our space program might be today had the Saturn V & F-1 not been cancelled.  In responding to this, he talked about how complex the F-1 was & how many parts were in it.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Mr. Young through me & you can read his articles published on The Space Review.

John Batchelor Hotel Mars, Wednesday, 3-19-14 March 20, 2014

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John Batchelor Hotel Mars, Wednesday, 3-19-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2211-BWB-2014-03-19.mp3

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Guests: John Batchelor, Dr. Roger Launius, Dr. David Livingston.  Topics:  Rocket engine testing & static firing tests.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. We do not permit the commercial use of any Space Show program or part thereof, nor do we permit Space Show programs to be edited, placed on YouTube, or other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted in news articles, papers, academic & research work but must be cited or referenced in the proper citation format. Contact Dr. Livingston for questions about our copyright and trademark policies which we do enforce.  This program is archived on The Space Show website, podcasting, and blog sites with permission from John Batchelor. Please visit the John Batchelor Show website for more information about this fine program, www.johnbatchelorshow.com.  Remember, your Amazon Purchases Can Help Support The Space Show/OGLF (www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm).  For those of you listening to archives on live365.com & rating the programs, please email me the reasons for your rating.  This will definitely help improve Space Show programming. Thank you.

We welcomed Dr. Roger Launius to the program to discuss our early rocket history of engine testing and static test firings.  We talked about the Apollo, Mercury, Gemini and then the Falcon engine testing process.  Roger also discussed the ICBM heritage of our early rockets & the additional testing done for human spaceflight.

Please post any comments/questions you might have on The Space Show blog.  You can contact any of  us through drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Open Lines, Tuesday, 3-4-14 March 5, 2014

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Open Lines, Tuesday, 3-4-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2198-BWB-2014-03-04.mp3

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Guest:  Open Lines with Dr. David Livingston.  Topics:  Launch costs, spy satellites, launch reliability, & much more.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.   For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

Welcome to our primary March Open Lines discussion.  During the first segment of this two hour program, we followed up from Monday with Tony talking about electric cars, SpaceX, Elon Musk, solar power, PGE electricity rates and more.  He also mentioned that Facebook bought out Titan Aerospace, a company that makes a solar airplane. Later in the program, Tony emailed the news that former Skylab astronaut & Korean War Vet William (Bill) Pogue passed away.  Bill was twice a guest on TSS & a friend. He will missed and we dedicated tonight’s program to his memory.  After the initial call with Tony, Jerry called from Florida to talk about the Ukraine & the space connection, the 2015 NASA budget, and possible Antares problems due to the Ukrainian connection.  Next, Dwayne called to talk about what it takes to launch sensitive and very expensive USAF spy satellites.  He talked about launch reliability as being more important than the launch costs. He associated this with the high costs of ULA launches and then we talked about what it would take for SpaceX to compete in that market.  It does appear that SpaceX is ready to compete per some of the articles that were sent me during the discussion.  Dwayne pointed out the series of Titan failures in the mid to late 90’s, & how this led to more oversight and quality control to make sure the satellites got to orbit.

In the second segment, Tim from N. California called and talked about computer power today making it possible to a SimNASA type venture to refine the NASA budget process, even the overall government budget.  He mentioned a project decades ago, World Games by Buckminster Fuller but back then the computer power was not what is today.   Here we also talked about Big Data.  Dwayne called back, I asked him for news on the Chinese lunar rover and we talked about the Atlas Russian engine, the RD-180.  Dwayne attended hearings last week on Inspiration Mars and reported to us on those hearings.  Doug emailed in wanting to know the number of ULA engine flights as compared to SpaceX engine flights.

Please post comments/questions on TSS blog above.  You can reach any of the participants in tonight’s show through me.

Open Lines, Tuesday, 5-21-13 May 22, 2013

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Open Lines, Tuesday, 5-21-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2013-BWB-2013-05-21.mp3

Guest: Open Lines with Dr. David Livingston.  Topics:  Our discussion covered wide range of timely topics per the below summary.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information.

We started our 2 hour 3 minute Open Lines discussion with a five minute recorded interview with Sarah Cruddas in the UK regarding the UK astronaut Tim Peake who is now scheduled for a mission to the ISS.  Sarah told us about the impact of Tim being the UK’s first government funded and supported astronaut.  You will clearly hear her excitement about this and for sure you will understand the very positive impact of this in England along with national British excitement.  Way to go England and congratulations from The Space Show!  You can find out more about Sarah’s reporting, space, science & film work at www.sarahcruddas.com. Our next caller was Mark Longanbach from Star Systems to tell us about the Hermes spacecraft and their efforts in developing a suborbital spaceship for tourism and cargo.  We also talked about crowd funding and Kickstarter with him.  Next, Nelson called in to talk about the need for long term NASA goals and he outlined his concept for bringing the space community together and making the most out of tight budgets, assets, technology, and capabilities, all in support of repositioning our space program for doing great things in the future. Nelson requested feedback on his idea so post your comments on The Space Show blog.  Nelson’s blog can be found at www.aviationweek.com/UserProfile.aspx?newspaperUserId=219284.  Kelly called next to talk about the upcoming 20th anniversary of DC-X and he compared back then to now.  As you will hear, Kelly saw more positive things back “in the day” than today.  He talked about today’s commercial space industry, NASA, SpaceX, commercial space, etc.  We also talked about the planned commercial Mars missions, the asteroid & lunar missions.  I’m sure you will find his comments interesting & thought provoking.

In our second segment, Tim said Rossi and his E-CAT were validated by a third party.  He then took issue with much of what Kelly had to say, especially around SpaceX and the emerging commercial space industry.  We also talked about the proposed NASA-Bigelow Aerospace project and I read the NASA PR announcement about it on air.  Later in the second segment, Charles Pooley called.  He wanted to talk about the NASA-Bigelow announcement and he said he also disagreed with Kelly, especially regarding SpaceX.  While Kelly was critical of the SpaceX engine design, Charles said it was an excellent design and he told us why he thought so.  I chimed in my support for SpaceX as I think they are doing a very good job and have solved inflight problems in an impressive way.  Also in this segment, we talked some about what constitutes a commercial mission.  I suggested today’s emerging industry is a hybrid but in the end, the companies behave as commercial companies. Pooley also talked about a Scaled CATO engine failure. He later sent us emails which I read on air that described the problem, then Charles called back to explain what I read.  Another topic I mentioned included the problems with the Kepler Space Telescope.

Post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog.  If you want to email any of the callers, do so through me.

 

Doug Messier, Tuesday, 4-12-12 April 18, 2012

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Doug Messier, Tuesday, 4-12-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1754-BWB-2012-04-17.mp3

Guest:  DouglasMessier.  Topics:  Parabolic Arc & space news, SAS conference, suborbitals, and more.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed back Doug Messier who is the Managing Editor of www.parabolicarc.com which is an excellent space news and information blog.  We started our discussion with Doug seeking his thoughts on the recently held Space Access Society Conference in Phoenix, AZ last weekend.  Doug told us what he thought were the highlights of the conference and referenced comments made by Jim Muncy several times during our discussion.  We talked about the coming Space X launch at the end of this month, some about SSP satellites, and other company plans discussed at the conference.  Doug fielded a few listener questions about interviewing people in the space industry, especially NewSpace, wanting to know what he does when he is given obvious spin by the person being interviewed.

In the second 45 minute segment, Doug took questions about Shuttle Discovery flying one more time around the Cape on the 747 on its way to Dulles Airport and the Smithsonian Museum. Also mentioned were the reported comments of former Discovery astronaut Dr. Anna Fisher to a boy watching the shuttle on the 747 advising him to “Study Russian.”  He talked about the transition from shuttle to whatever comes next and both of us commented that the transition seemed mismanaged.  Another listener asked him about human rating the Atlas and Delta and he said it was underway.  A listener wanted to know if the 2012 first quarter had presented him with any surprises regarding space.  John in Atlanta called in for a comprehensive discussion from SRB usage to a mini shuttle, Dream Chaser, separate vehicles for cargo and crew, first stage recovery for reusability, and more.  Doug talked some more about the XCOR Lynx, possible Russian plans to enlarge the Soyuz, and he took a question on possible Chinese ISS missions.  Ron from Queens called in with Dream Chaser and Stratolaunch questions.  Doug talked about the Mojave Air and Spaceport and we learned that the Mojave group had offered some consulting to Spaceport America in New Mexico but it had been rejected.  This brought up a discussion about crosswinds and other runway issues at Spaceport America.  I repeated some of the news I talked about last year which was published in both the print and online edition of the Albuquerque Journal. One of the articles on this from 1/16/11 is at www.abqjournal.com/news/state/1623176state01-16-11.htm but you may need to be a subscriber to view this article.  Terry inquired about CCDEV3 (we know it has a new name) and was hoping at least 2-3 companies would be selected. Doug, Terry, and I agreed that competition was important.  Tim called from Huntsville & we got distracted by his questions about the 50 NASA astronauts writing a letter challenging NASA science on global warming & the NASA response.  This discussion was more about civility rather than global warming. Also, there were some garbled words in the recording in this segment so I had to delete what could not be understood.  You will find three such edits in this particular discussion & I do apologize for this.  There is about 2 seconds of silence with each edit.  Near the end, Terry sent us the link to a SpacePolicyOnline.com article about the Senate subcommittee adding more money to the Mars program and cutting about $305 million from commercial crew. See www.spacepolicyonline.com/news/senate-subcommittee-adds-100-million-for-mars-missions for details.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog URL above.