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Dr. Pal Brekke, Friday, 5-22-15 May 23, 2015

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Dr. Pal Brekke, Friday, 5-22-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2478-BWB-2015-05-22.mp3

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If you rate shows on live365.com, email me your rating reasons to help improve the showGuest:  Dr. Pal Brekke.  Topics:  The Northern Nights and solar activity.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back Dr. Pal Brekke to discuss the Northern Lights, his new documentary video on the Northern Lights, and solar activity.  During our one hour show, we started with the Northern Lights and his video, “Northern Lights-a Magic Experience DVD.”  You can see the trailer to the video and order it at www.solarmax.no/Aurora/DVD.html.  Dr. Brekke introduced us to the Northern Lights, talked about Northern Lights tourism, and where the best locations are to see them and during what season.  Our guest was asked about the same thing happening in the southern hemisphere and he said yes, the Southern Lights or Polar Lights.  Not only did Dr. Brekke talk about his documentary video but we discussed some of the mythology associated with the Northern Lights, mostly on the fear side of things.  Dr. Brekke then talked about how the Northern Lights can move south, sometimes even being visible as far south as Florida.  He then explained why this happens re the solar wind putting pressure on Earth’s magnetosphere.  Our guest was asked about the various colors in the lights and he explained it using a neon tube for advertising purposes as an example.  B John asked a series of questions including one about telescopes and gravitational lenses.  We then switched over to talk about sunspots, CMEs and the 11 year solar cycle.  A listener asked Dr. Brekke to explain solar weather and space weather, then Dr. Brekke was asked if Earth’s climate is impacted by sunspots and if so, how.  Don’t miss this discussion.  Jack sent in a question asking how close one can get to the sun without feeling the intense temperatures or having hardware destroyed.  You will be surprised by what Dr. Brekke said in response to this question so don’t miss it.  Our next topic included short comments on existing and future solar missions planned from Europe and the U.S.  B John then asked about a possible repeat of the Carrington Effect and what that might mean for Earth based and orbiting electronic hardware.  Dr. Brekke had much to say about such an event and the potential damage that could happen were another Carrington Effect realized.  Near the end of our discussion, a listener asked our guest how best to take photos of the Northern Lights.  He suggested using an SLR type camera, not a point and shoot or cell phone camera, use a tripod, a low f stop and a very high ISS setting.  He then touted the Sony A7S camera.  Before our discussion ended, our guest was asked about the best tools for solar research over the past decades and most important findings.  Again, don’t miss his answer.  As the show was about to end, the final listener question was how scientists predict how much life is left for our sun. Wait till you hear how much hydrogen the sun burns every second!

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above.  You can reach Dr. Pal Brekke through me.

 

 

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Dr. Jack Zirker, Friday, 1-10-14 January 11, 2014

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Dr. Jack Zirker, Friday, 1-10-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2162-BWB-2014-01-10.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Jack Zirker.  Topics:  The Science of Ocean Waves.   Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF.  See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.

We welcomed back Dr. Jack Zirker to the show to discuss his new book,  “The Science of Ocean Waves: Ripples, Tsunamis, and Stormy Seas.”  Please note that this was a one hour one segment discussion.  Dr. Zirker started our discussion by letting us know why he wrote this book and he told us about this interest in ocean waves.  We covered many interesting topics including rogue and freak waves, 60-70 feet huge waves with the energy to cause lots of damage, tsunamis, currents, tides, and more.  Listeners asked him several email questions while our guest described the wave process, wave movement, wave  tipping over and breaking.  We talked about tsunami movement across the oceans, the speeds at which a tsunami wave travels, and what you would feel if you were on a boat/ship in the open ocean and the tsunami wave moved by you.  Our guest explained why these waves are so destructive.  Dr. Zirker talked about the early science, oceanography, and forecasting work of Walter Monk, including his WW2 contribution in which he had to forecast wind and water movement to safely allow landing boats to make it to shore for D-Day.  Don’t miss this story.  Listeners wanted to know about using wave energy as a source for renewable energy. Dr. Zirker described some projects around the world to experiment with this, plus he described the different types of equipment being used and considered for making this happen.  We talked about large waves off the coat of Africa and also in the North Atlantic and North Sea , plus the Pacific Ocean.  Listeners also wanted to know the relationship of space to oceanography and research.  As you will hear, satellites are capable of tracking and providing information on a wide range of ocean issues and topics.  One listener question inquired about tides for use in sustainable power generation projects . Dr. Zirker then told us about a French tide project that has been ongoing since the 1960’s.  Toward the end we compared the research fields and dollars going into the oceans and space.  You might be surprised by what our guest had to say about this.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog above.  You can contact Dr. Zirker through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Classroom with Drs. John Jurist & Jim Logan, Tuesday, 12-17-13 December 16, 2013

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Classroom with Drs. John Jurist & Jim Logan, Tuesday, 12-17-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2145-BWB-2013-12-17.mp3

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Guests:  Dr. Jim Logan, Dr. John Jurist.  Topics: This was a Classroom show on radiation issues for deep space travel, Mars and Moon settlements.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.

We welcomed Dr. Jim Logan and Dr. John Jurist to this special 2.5 hour Space Show classroom in-depth discussion on space radiation. We focused our discussion on deep space, Mars, the Moon and BLEO missions. Note that on both The Space Show blog (see above) and The Space Show Classroom blog (http://spaceshowclassroom.wordpress.com),  Dr. Jurist has a Power Point presentation on radiation.  During the program, our guests referred to specific slides that you will want to check out.  In our first segment, Dr. Logan started out by telling us about his interest in the subject, why he has been writing a paper on the subject for publication, and how this Classroom show came about.  He cited our short duration spaceflight experience, the Apollo missions, Space Shuttle flights, and then how things started to change when we had six month ISS visits.  Dr. Logan also made it clear that space was not a benign emptiness type of environment.  He said the reality was that interplanetary space was a sea of disruptive ionizing radiation wrecking havoc on biologic systems.  We moved forward in our discussion from that point.  We talked about the findings of the MSL RAD instrument regarding radiation on the way to Mars and on the surface of Mars.  Both John and Jim spent some time putting the RAD numbers through analysis to let us know what this means for human missions to Mars.  We talked shielding, possible materials, passive and active.  We talked extensively about water and the use of hydrogen as well for shielding.  Our guests addressed the two types of radiation, the GCR (galactic cosmic rays) and the CME/solar flare.  Here, John suggested listeners look at his slide 13 as we talked about protons and neutrons.  Jim said there was no magic bullet and talked about shielding effects of Earth’s atmosphere.  Pay attention here as Jim introduced us to the  RP scale.  For being on the surface, he said nothing less than RP100 would suffice.  For the vehicle, an RP5 was required.  John introduced us to career limits for radiation for men and women astronauts of different age but the career limits are for LEO and not BLEO.  BLEO limits are expected to be more restrictive when made public in April 2014.  Earth Mars transit times were discussed, especially in the context of Brian’s email that suggested a 180 day transit time.  Both our guests said that was unlikely with chemical propulsion and all of us again stressed the need for nuclear thermal propulsion.  Microgravity was talked about, especially in the context of side effects due to the radiation environment.  Jim then brought up the EVA subject and spacesuits.  Briefly, Jim said that quite possibly the ISS construction represented the zenith of EVAs which may become a thing of the past.  Don’t miss why he said this plus his description of serious spacesuit limitations.  We talked about life support to Mars and here Jim suggested we should use Open Loop! Again, listen to the rational behind this recommendation.  Don’t miss what our guests said about theories & movies making it sound easy to go to Mars and that the radiation would be nothing more than just a few more cigarette packs a year.  Our last topic addressed informed consent issues.

In the second segment, I asked our guests for a readiness timetable were there sufficient funding and technology advancements.  I also inquired if Russia, China, and others assessed the radiation risks in a similar way to the U.S.  We then talked about radiation and space pregnancy, fetus development, birth, and informed consent for the fetus, a baby, and a child under 18.  Ethical issues regarding child birth and space pregnancy were talked about as well.  Curt had sent in email questions which our guests answered, especially about drinking irradiated water and microgravity DNA damage & what this may mean for radiation effects.  Next, I asked Jim and John to tell us their 2-5 steps for the start of designing a Mars human mission.  Jim went first and listed Day 1 and Day 2 activities, John listed his top three priorities which were different than those suggested by Jim.  Don’t miss this discussion as its very instructive as to how to do or at least start mission planning for a human mission BLEO.  Roger sent in a question asking if the crew should be senior citizens since they have more resistance to radiation.  Don’t miss what our guests said about this idea.  It may surprise you.  Our next topic was would going to Deimos be easier.  Yes, it would but it would be a very different kind of human  mission.  Jim had some great comments about Mars gravity.  Briefly, he said it was the “best.” Later, when asked to compare the Moon and Mars, our guests said lunar radiation was worse than Mars.  Also, the Mars atmosphere does provide limited shielding while there is no such thing on the Moon.  Jim had earlier talked about a sphere being the perfect shape for an interplanetary spaceship.  Shelia emailed in wanting to know if heavy lift made a difference and if the sphere was so good, why were capsules being used? Don’t miss the response.  We then talked about the complexities of rendezvous and docking, especially in the context of fewer launches (heavy lift) as compared to many more launches (smaller rockets).  Near the end, I asked our guests if either thought our nation, the public, NASA, our leaders and politicians were sufficiently motivated to do a human Mars mission.  Jim did not think so and had much more to say in reply to this question.  John was more pessimistic.  Both thought it was more likely that the private sector would mount a human Mars mission rather than our seeing a government mission, but raising the needed capital might turn out to be a show stopper.  The three of us then talked about what it was like growing up in the 40’s, 50’s, and 60’s as compared to today.  John and I (John is a bit more than 2 years older than me) were probably more harsh than Jim in our assessment of today, but we all realize that the younger generations will be taking us to space, building the next smartphone and more. I talked about my visits to Google, Apple, SpaceX, etc. and the excitement in the air in belonging in their work forces which does not seem to exist with NASA. This opened the door for Jim to put it on the line about his NASA experiences and the potential opportunities providing NASA can somehow reorganize.  He did not think the type of reorganization he was talking about would happen.  Both our guests left us with excellent takeaway points and concluding pearls of wisdom.

Please post your comments/questions on the blogs. You can reach either of our guests through me.

                                                  Radiation Biophysics and Human Spaceflight

Dr. Claude Piantadosi, Monday, 3-18-13 March 19, 2013

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Dr. Claude Piantadosi, Monday, 3-18-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1976-BWB-2013-03-18.mp3

Guest:  Dr. Claude Piantadosi.  Topics”:  We discussed Dr. Piantodosi’s book, “Mankind Beyond Earth,” human spaceflight, Mars missions, radiation, microgravity.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information.

We welcomed Dr. Claude Piantadosi to the program to discuss his new book, “Mankind Beyond Earth: The History, Science, and Future of Human Space Exploration.”  If you buy the book using this Amazon URL, www.amazon.com/Claude-A.-Piantadosi/e/B001IU0QRS/ref=onegiantlea20, Amazon will contribute to The Space Show/OGLF.  During our first segment of this two hour discussion, we compared the space environment to the undersea environment, and live support and environmental issues with a nuclear submarine as opposed to what we have available today for space flight.  Our guest talked about the advantages of human spaceflight (HSF) over robotic missions, plus the contributions to advancing technology, science & our understanding of our own environment derived from HSF.  Radiation & microgravity issues were mentioned and listeners started asking detailed questions pertaining HSF and Mars missions.  Much of this segment focused the two planned Mars missions and the human factors challenges.  In addition to a comprehensive analysis from the medical perspective, listeners also pointed out that Inspire Mars would likely have indirect if not direct public money supporting the mission.  Most were less supportive of the mission if it included public money, direct or indirect.  Dr. Piantadosi talked about radiation & microgravity unknowns and variables. He also talked about our current time line for meeting human factors & life support challenges over the near term which was not good.

In our second segment, we talked about affordable space & how to achieve it. Heavy lift and SLS came up as did fuel depots and reusability.  A listener asked about older people being more radiation resistant or tolerant. Long duration spaceflight mental issues came up and our guest talked about them in the context of crew selection and training.  Procreation in space was discussed as was the mass needed for water radiation shielding.  Our guest suggested that since the shuttle retirement, our space program had lost its focus.  He said there were no plans to get us the next level of information needed for travel beyond the Van Allen Belts.  He also talked about a lunar first program to learn and get the needed information to go to an asteroid or Mars, suggesting this might be a 15-20 year research program.  In the context of lengthy missions, our guest addressed sequestration and the need for international projects and financing. When asked if the recently announced private deep space missions had an edge over public mission, he did not think so.  Don’t miss what our guest said about this.  In closing, he urged us to engage in critical reading and critical thinking about problems.  Space is essential & we need to move forward with it using a good development & exploration plan.

Please post your comments/questions for Dr. Piantadosi on The Space Show blog above.  You can reach our guest through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Dr. Curt Bilby, Dr. Elizabeth Leffel, Monday, 10-22-12 October 23, 2012

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Dr. Curt Bilby, Dr. Elizabeth Leffel, Monday, 10-22-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1878-BWB-2012-10-22.mp3

Guests: Dr. Curt Bilby, Dr. Elizabeth Leffel.  Topics:  The RLIP76 protein by Terapio for radiation toxicity mitigation from multiple causes.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. We do not permit the commercial use of any Space Show program or part thereof, nor do we permit Space Show programs to be edited, placed on YouTube, or other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted in news articles, papers, academic & research work, but must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact Dr. Livingston for questions about our copyright and trademark policies.  We welcomed Drs. Curt Bilby & Elizabeth Leffel to the program to discuss the use of the RLIP76 protein for radiation damage mitigation using this biologic medical product.  You can learn much more about RLIP76 at the Terapio website, www.terapio.com. Terapio won Honorable Mention at this year’s NewSpace Business Plan Competition where I met Dr. Leffel as she presented for the company at the competition. You can see Dr. Leffel’s presentation at www.spacevidcast.com/2012/07/27/newspace-2012-business-plan-competition-part-2.  Dr. Leffel starts her presentation at 26 minutes 25 seconds into the video. In starting today’s discussion, our guests explained RIP76 and how it works through the oxidative stress pathway.  We learned about the FDA Animal Rule being used given human radiation experiments are not allowed.  We also talked about FDA fast tracking RLIP76 approval in case of an emergency, plus how RLIP76 would probably be used for acute radiation syndrome as compared to a chronic radiation exposure as the treatment models differ.  Near the end of the first segment, NYC 1st responder Daniel called us with several questions applicable to his being an emergency 1st responder & likely to be closely involved in any nuclear terrorist event. We don’t often get a view of this world on The Space Show so I urge you to pay attention to Daniel’s questions & the discussion with our guests.

In our second segment, I asked Dr. Bilby questions about the venture capital model for pharmaceutical R&D, pricing, & national healthcare systems plus insurance companies blocking access to many of these cutting edge drugs due to their high cost.  Curt took us through the risks associated with the different stages of pharmaceutical R&D, clinical trials, & product distribution. We talked about the very high failure rate for new drug research & we were introduced to the term “valley of death” as applied to this process.  We talked more about the actual RLIP76 process, potential pricing of the product & public health policy that might control its use.  We had a caller ask about using RLIP76 on a one way Mars trip as a trial, wondering if the FDA would approve such an “experiment.”  Dr. Bilby explained why it was unlikely this would happen, then we talked about getting RLIP76 for a space use by going outside the U.S.  Listen to why that won’t work. We also talked about space radiation issues, the possible role of RLIP76 regarding these issues, plus NASA’s interest in working with Terapio in their research.  Doug called to cite Terapio as a perfect example of a space scalable business, a topic we talk often of on The Space Show. As the segment ended, I asked Dr. Bilby if Terapio was public or if it had plans to do an IPO anytime in the near future. He explained the mixture of government & private sector equity partners but no plans for an IPO at this time.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog.  You can email our guests through me.