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Dr. Julie Robinson, Monday, 12-21-15 December 22, 2015

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Dr. Julie Robinson, Monday, 12-21-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2609-BWB-2015-12-21.mp3

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Guest: Dr. Julie Robinson.  Topics:  The ISS and how it benefits humanity.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back to the program Dr. Julie Robinson, Chief Scientist for the ISS.  During the first segment of our 1 hour 25 minute program, I started the interview by asking our guest how research on the ISS benefits humanity.  Dr. Robinson told us about a special NASA website on this subject, www.nasa.gov/stationbenefits.com. You can freely download the NASA report on these benefits and contributions, “The International Space Station Benefits For Humanity, 2nd edition,” at https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/jsc_benefits_for_humanity_tagged_6-30-15.pdf.  This website has terrific station information on it so I urge you to become familiar with it.  Our guest said that since 2011, there have been significant R&D benefits.  Dr. Robinson listed a few examples including the development and refining of ultra sound, drug work, mitigation strategies for Duchesne Muscular Dystrophy, protein crystal growth, the new discoveries regarding latent virus shredding, plus having tested the new drug, Prolia, for bone strengthening.  Listener Jackie wanted to know more about expansion plans.  Our guest mentioned the BEAM inflatable module experiment for the ISS in 2016 as one way to expand the ISS.  Our guest was asked about the priority of experiments given ISS participants are international and governed by a multi-nation ISS agreement.  Don’t miss how projects are selected and financed.  Helen sent in a note wanting to know how the ISS contributed to cleaning up global water supplies.  Dr. Robinson replied by talking about the powerful ISS observational role and close coordination with UN agencies that do help to clean up water supplies. Environmental monitoring mentioned as well.   Julie was asked about the possibility of ISS post 2024, the planned shut down date for the station.  She said the station was designed to last 30 years with good safety margins built into the design.  The actual shut down of the station will be made on a political and budgetary basis along with the station partners.  I asked her about the possibility of privatizing the station as many Space Show guests and listeners have advocated or even said would happen down the road. Our guest said the station was not designed to operate cheaply. When it was designed and built, it was pushing the edge of technology, design, engineering, and life support.  She suggested a private company would do much better developing a new station built upon what we have learned from many disciplines since the station was designed and built.  Dr. Robinson had more to say on this subject so don’t miss it.  Todd asked her about the use of robots on the station taking over most of the duties now performed by astronauts.  In short, she said that technology was not there yet, it was being worked on but it may be ten years or so out from now.  Before the break, a listener asked her about an earlier comments about the station not supporting humans to Mars.  Dr. Robinson corrected this listener.  As a National Lab, it is chartered to devote half its resources and budget to supporting humanitarian issues, projects and causes, and half to space exploration which would include Mars missions.

In the second segment, we discussed in more detail Earth Sciences, technology, education, and cognition experiments. For all these categories, our guest provided examples showing how these missions benefit humanity and the role the ISS played in them.  Listener Paul asked if the station had downward looking radar on it, then BJohn asked another question wondering how our guest would design the next station for a $100 billion dollar budget.  Julie said the station would not cost $100 billion, then she said the next station would likely be private, citing some additional examples to support her statement. Don’t miss what she had to say on this subject.  Animal experiments were mentioned, especially using mice.  She was asked about using other animals but she explained why mice and other rodents were the research animal of choice on land as well as in space.  In elaborating about technologies, she also cited many examples including one present in all our laptops as well as one involved in alloy manufacturing.  Regarding educational outreach, the ISS has many programs on a global basis but one she talked about was the one using ham radio operators to provide a link to talk to the station at various schools.  Space tourism on the station was discussed, so was commercial business including NanoRacks, and Chinese space station possibilities.  Near the end of the program, Dr. Robinson answered questions about the ISS budget and how to lower it.  Our guest offered us excellent closing comments.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog.  You can reach Dr. Robinson through The Space Show as well as her NASA website.

 

Jim Keravala, Friday, 9-18-15 September 19, 2015

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Jim Keravala, Friday, 9-18-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2555-BWB-2015-09-18.mp3

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Guest: Jim Keravala of Shackleton Energy.   Topics: Space development through solving the world’s terrestrial energy problem. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

 

We welcomed back Jim Keravala, COO of Shackleton Energy Company, to update us on the latest news with Shackleton and their lunar plans. Visit their website for more information, www.shackletonenergy.com. During the first segment of our 1 hour 47 minute discussion, Jim introduced us to the Shackleton Energy plans for space development by solving the terrestrial energy problem facing Earth. The program Jim outlined is expansive and at times complicated so you will want to pay extra careful attention to our discussion. Jim talked about creating the Off World Foundation and the Off World Consortium which he fully explained in this segment. He also said the real path for space development required solving the earth’s terrestrial energy problem. He then explained his multi-billion dollar program which is in three phases starting with propellant depots, then lunar mining and manufacturing, followed by the establishment of space based solar power. Our guest talked about the many challenges but noted that investor caution was prevalent along with risk uncertainty. In this segment, he talked about the market, consortium participants, timelines, business and industrial challenges, and more. He also outlined the assumptions used in designing this program.

 

In the second segment, Jim talked about the Outer Space Treaty, regulatory barriers, rectenna placement, power distribution to the poorest and most needy of countries first, space advocacy, space settlement, the traditional space industry, and technology readiness levels (TRL) for the development of Off World program. Jim answered questions about program costs, suggesting that the first phase mentioned earlier would cost around $18 billion! He outlined the additional program costs and timelines, plus revenues received along the way being reinvested in the program. We talked about comparisons with other industries such as the oil and gas industry and their support for the Off World program. Several times in this segment Jim said this was the best way to drive the development of space and eventually space settlement. At the end of the segment, Jim offered a detailed conclusion & summary for the Consortium to solve the issue of terrestrial energy through the use of space.

 

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Jim Keravala at the email address he gave us at the end of our program.

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Armin Ellis, Monday, 3-23-15 March 24, 2015

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Dr. Armin Ellis, Monday, 3-23-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2439-BWB-2015-03-23.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Armin Ellis.  Topics: The Exploration Institute and the upcoming Summit, exploration expeditions & more.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

 

We welcomed Dr. Armin Ellis to the program to discuss the brand new Exploration Institute (http://exploration.institute) and the upcoming Exploration Institute Summit (see http://exploration.institute/summit-2015) from April 14-15, 2015 at the Keck Institute at Cal Tech located in Pasadena, CA.  Check out the Summit flyer at http://exploration.institute/summitflyer.  During the first segment of our 86 minute discussion, Dr. Ellis provided us with the background on why he felt it necessary to start the Exploration Institute. He described the first rate team he assembled to move the Institute forward toward its goals and he talked about the importance and need for more exploration in our society.  The Summit, which he described in detail, will be limited to 35 people.  As we heard, there are still opening for the Summit so Dr. Ellis encouraged interested people to complete and send in the application form on the website so that an interview can be scheduled.  He explained how the Summit was really an unconference which is why participants needed to apply and be accepted.  By the end of the Summit, those in attendance will have approved three different expeditions which will then go into the Exploration Institute pipeline for financing, management, and eventual deployment.  Armin also defined exploration in this segment so that we would have the proper context for it for this discussion. He also talked about  some of the planned short talks at the Summit including one on the topic of how to brand an expedition and another on safety issues.  When listeners asked our guest what type of expeditions he had in mind, he said the group would decide that issue and  they would vote on it. One listener asked Armin how JPL had impacted his decision to create the Exploration Institute and his appreciation of exploration and expeditions.  Another topic that came up in both segments was the need for effective communication, especially through story telling.  Listeners asked him to differentiate the Exploration Institute from other exploration organizations such as the Explorer’s Club.  Several times during the discussion we talked about the human need to explore for without it there is an increased risk of simply disappearing or perishing over time.

 

In the second segment, Armin asked for ideas on cubesats and other concepts for expeditions.  You can send them to him via the contact page on the website.  He spoke to story telling, not just in books but on blogs, YouTube, and other forms of modern media.  Several educational outreach suggestions were offered by listeners including school programs, local student expeditions, and taking the idea to the scouting community. Later, I asked Dr. Ellis for his 5 year business plan for the Exploration Institute, we talked about the Institute’s newsletter, subscribing to it and making available past editions on the website.  Toward the end, Armin gave a shout out to his team of advisors and participants with him in the Institute.  Armin, in response to one of my questions, offered some suggestions on how to communicate with people who seem unable to connect the dots on big vision concepts.

 

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above.  You can reach Dr. Ellis through his website or me.

Dr. Don Flournoy, Friday, 11-22-13 November 23, 2013

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Dr. Don Flournoy, Friday, 11-22-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2127-BWB-2013-11-22.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Don Flournoy.  Topics:  SunSat Design Competition, Space Solar Power.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF.  See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.

We welcomed Dr. Don Flournoy to the program to discuss the upcoming SunSat Design Competition (www.nss.org/news/releases/NSS_Release_20131028_SunSat.html).  Information about the SunSat Design Competition, the guidelines, prizes and all the details can be found at http://sunsat.gridlab.ohio.edu/node/7.  During the first segment of our 1 hour 25 minute program, Dr. Flournoy introduced us to the International SunSat Design Competition along with the concept of Space Solar Power (SSP).  We talked about the competition, the role of the NSS and also the SpaceJournal which our guest edits, www.spacejournal.ohio.edu (The Online Journal of Space Communication).  Specifically, Don referenced Issue 17, then later Issue 16.  He talked about the need to do proper story telling in a visual format, the need to have your design be technically doable, and include a business plan.  He described the top prizes of which there would be a few at $10K each.  We went over design contest logistics, due dates, the guidelines which are on the above URL and more.  Don then talked about the fundraising involved by the competition, the need to raise sponsorship dollars, crowd funding, and more.  One listener asked if an entry could focus on the launch problem related to SSP.  Yes, that was acceptable.  We talked about the rectennas and he pointed us to an article about this which was posted on Issue 17.  Randy wanted to know if the policy aspect could be an entry since that would be short on the technical component. Again, yes since policy and legal are clearly part of the solution to implementing SSP.  Demo projects came up, especially in reference to nanosatellites and cubesats. Don told about the presentations that take place at the ISDC meeting in May.  We talked about other countries interested in SSP& their role in the competition.

In the second segment, we started with a call from Seth who is member of Don’s Advisory Board.  Seth had additional information about the competition to share with us, plus he talked about the overall educational value of the design competition and work that Don was doing with his students and the online journal.  Don referenced his work with non-technical students, the need to do visualizations for the project, and the work coming out of the Grid Lab.  Don told us about the course he teaches which focuses on creative visualization for science & technology plus how to use social medial.  Our guest was then asked about the potential impact of a demo project and how that might change the project development timeline.  Near the end of the program, Dr. Flournoy was asked about using the Moon for SSP, then he again went over the requirements for entry, including the need to include a business plan. As we were ending, a listener asked him about outreach efforts to policy makers, Congress, staffers,& others, plus their overall interest in SSP.  He was also asked about his student’s reaction to the competition and the overall idea of SSP.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog per above.

Michael Ciannilli, Leonard David, Tuesday, 7-17-12 July 17, 2012

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Michael Ciannilli, Leonard David, Tuesday, 7-17-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1816-BWB-2012-07-17.mp3

Lessons Learned from the Columbia accident & NASA’s human spaceflight experience

Guests:  Michael Ciannilli, Leonard David.  Topics:  Columbia lessons learned & human spaceflight safety issues.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed Michael Ciannilli of NASA to the program to discuss lessons learned from the Columbia accident & NASA’s history of human spaceflight. Leonard David of Space.com returned as a co-host for this program.  Our nearly two hour no break discussion started with Michael providing us with an historical overview of the Columbia accident.  We talked about the debris retrieval process & the fact that about 38% of Columbia was retrieved.  Michael was asked about surprises & among the many he mentioned, one in particular dealt with the tile & thermal impact showing burning on the inside & how that was a clue to what happened to Columbia.  Michael then listed several lessons learned.  When I asked if he could prioritize the items he mentioned, he said they were all important.  We talked about the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), return to flight, incorporating lessons learned, & more.  Leonard asked about the idea of NASA HSF safety excesses & we asked Michael if lessons learned & HSF safety issues were shared with both the private sector companies & the Russians.  I asked Michael about educational outreach & he had some interesting things to say about the international internet audience as well as the local audience.  The subject of urban legends came up in the outreach discussion & we honed in on the idea of the possibility of a rescue mission.  You do not want to miss this important discussion.  Other issues discussed included the foam problem, Leonard asked about the “bone matrix” he saw in use at the CAIB hearings, & I mentioned the need to really know & understand the hardware given our recent intimate visit with Endeavour.  Cultural issues were a part of this discussion, including the risk of workforce lulls & the need to avoid complacency.  Michael cited tile issues as an example going back to STS 1 and studying all missions to really understand tile concerns.  One email dealt with NASA risk aversion & some space enthusiasts saying that to open the space frontier we need to “kill more people.”  Michael addressed these issues, going over the NASA mission & imperatives, their responsibilities, and the risks of all sorts of consequences coming to life.  We talked about individual worker responsibility and accountability with Michael giving us both NASA and personal insights into this subject.  We then talked about the balancing act required in weighing the risk trades of cutting costs, cutting corners, taking more risks, taking less risks, etc.  He suggested private companies will go through a similar process and talked about the consequences of decisions which can be devastating with the loss of a crew to the termination of a program or the loss of the company.  Michael explained the Criticality One status and what it means in the risk analysis process.  Another listener asked if shuttles still had life left in them at the time of retirement. The short answer was yes but don’t miss what Michael has to say about the condition of space shuttle fleet at the time of retirement.  Another issue discussed dealt with trying to find a lower cost way of operating shuttle and dealing with all their infrastructure without compromising safety.  Near the end of the program, we took a Southern California call asking about potentially different standards for government astronauts and private-sector astronauts.  I was asked to lead off with my opinion which I did from a business liability perspective, then Michael and Leonard discussed the subject. We had lots to say about informed consent, litigation, & the uncertainties inherent when involved in a jury trial.  As we were winding down the program, Michael provided us with his closing comments, then I added in my own comments that focused on the sports inspirational speaker, Ray Lewis, linebacker with the Baltimore Ravens, who gives a terrific inspirational speech to teams around the country, “Pissed Off For Greatness.”  You can find lots of information about this by using Google for his name or the speech title.  Essentially, this is about not accepting mediocrity in what you do & I extrapolated it to space.  HSF workers, regardless of being with NASA or any company as well as others involved in the space field cannot accept mediocrity.  Being pissed off for greatness implies that if you are not pissed off for greatness, then you willing to settle for being mediocre in what you do.  Michael, Leonard and I talked about this at the end of the program.  I hope you will concur with me that extrapolating this inspirational sports talk to space fits.  Michael closed us out by saying it takes courage to stand up and say something if you believe something is off or not right in the program.  He further said it takes a lot to challenge the bureaucracy and stand up but that we all have to do it when the situation arises.

Please post your comments and questions on The Space Show blog URL above.  If you want to email Michael or Leonard, do so through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com and I will forward it to the person of your choice.

NASA Centennial Challenges, Night Rover, Friday, 3-16-12 March 17, 2012

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NASA Centennial Challenges, Night Rover, Friday, 3-16-12

Featurinig Josh Neubert & Dr. Larry Cooper

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1737-BWB-2012-03-16.mp3

Guests:  Josh Neubert, Dr. Larry Cooper.   Topics:  NASA Centennial Challenges and the Night Rover Challenge.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed back Josh Neubert and for the first time, Dr. Larry Cooper, Program Executive for the NASA Centennial Challenges program.  You can learn more about Centennial Challenges by visiting www.nasa.gov/challenges. For more specific information on the Night Rover challenge, visit http://nightrover.org.  In our first segment, Dr. Cooper went over the history of NASA Centennial Challenges with a specific focus on the Night Rover Challenge.  We also talked about the two other challenges going on at this time, the Sample Return Robot Challenge and the Nano-Satellite Launch Challenge.  You can access the websites for these additional challenges from the NASA Centennial Challenge home page.  Dr. Cooper talked about some of the successes of the program, including the glove challenge won by Peter Homer who has been a guest on The Space Show.  Josh went into some of the details regarding Night Rover, specifically the draft Rules which are now out and open for comment.  Josh also talked about the Team Agreement.  He described the $1.5 million prize and the eligibility requirements for winning this prize.  He then talked about the three levels of storage battery density in terms of winning the prize.

In our second segment, Josh said it was opened for everyone from a garage entrepreneur to a large company.  Larry talked about ideas for future challenges and asked listeners to suggest ideas to NASA.  He then told listeners about the process for submitting future ideas, especially for the next five year.  Larry and Josh both referenced earlier successful Challenge programs plus a few that were retired without anyone winning them.  Several Challenge ideas came in from listeners including one on debris removal and Larry said that NASA Centennial Challenges was authorized to issue up to a $50 million purse!  We talked about ITAR issues and partnerships for prizes with other space agencies such as ESA.  Later in the segment, I asked about the history of prizes and our guests went as far back as the Longitude Prize regarding ocean navigation which was actually won by a clock maker. Other prizes and awards were mentioned in this historical review of the subject.  When asked for closing comments, Josh reminded us to provide feedback on the draft rules and Larry spoke highly of prices having a positive impact on entrepreneurs, being a plus for tax payer funding, and for pushing the envelope for discovery and advancements with technology.

If you have comments or questions for our guests, please post them on The Space Show blog URL above.  If you want to email either guest, please send your note to me and I will forward it to the person of your choice.

Dr. Ryan Kobrick, Monday, 3-12-12 March 13, 2012

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Dr. Ryan Kobrick, Monday, 3-12-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1733-BWB-2012-03-12.mp3

Guest:  Dr. Ryan Kobrick.  Topic:  Yuri’s Night Celebration 2012.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. We welcomed Dr. Ryan Kobrick to the program to discuss Yuri’s Night 2012 with us.  According to the Yuri’s Night website (www.yurisnight.net), “Yuri’s Night is a global celebration of humanity’s past, present, and future in space. Yuri’s Night parties and events are held around the world every April in commemoration of April 12, 1961, the day of cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin’s first manned spaceflight, and April 12, 1981, the inaugural launch of NASA’s Space Shuttle.”  Please note that today’s program review will not be by segments given our discussion was ongoing throughout the show and the subjects and topics discussed did not change that much per segment.  Dr. Kobrick started us out with a brief history of Yuri’s Night but we soon got into the global parties and events, how to find a party or event near you, and how to host an event.  As you will hear, if you contact Yuri’s Night through their website, many people are willing to help you organize an event and there are lots of supporting materials for you to use.  We also talked about Yuri’s Night educational outreach for students of all grades.  Previous Yuri’s Night celebrations were discussed, we took a look at the different countries where events are held, and our guest fielded several listener questions on these issues.  One question Ryan received from Chuck asked why a Yuri’s Night and not a similar celebration for Apollo 11.  Don’t miss what both Ryan and I had to say about this in our response to Chuck.  This particular question brought up the subject of NASA support for Yuri’s Night and our guest had much to say about this as well.  Another program Ryan talked about was Yuri’s Night Live (http://live.yurisnight.net).  Listeners also wanted to know if Yuri’s Night was supported by other national space agencies and why there were no events in China.  Later in the program near the end, we asked Dr. Kobrick about his own background in space, how he got his space interest, and what he hoped to be doing in the future. Visit his personal website, www.ryinspace.com.  As you will hear, he has been involved in some interesting projects, spacesuit engineering and design projects, lunar dust studies, and he wants to go on to be a university professor when he finishes his Postdoctoral Associate program at MIT.  After talking with him on The Space Show and having met and talked with him in person at conferences, I can honestly say that there are going to be some very lucky college students out there who end up in one or more of his classes.  Before our program ended, we returned to discussing Yuri’s Night and Ryan urged us all to register to attend an event or host one.  With one month to go before Yuri’s Night 2012 is here, the time is now to either plan and host an event or make arrangements to attend an event and participate.

If you have comments/questions, please post them on The Space Show blog URL above.  To contact the Yuri’s Night 2012 team, use http://yurisnight.net/contact.

Josh Neubert, Friday, 12-16-11 December 16, 2011

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Josh Neubert, Friday, 12-16-11

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1673-BWB-2011-12-16.mp3

 Guest:  Josh Neubert.  Topics:  Night Rover Challenge, NASA Centennial Challenges, educational outreach.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  The Space Show/OGLF is now engaged in its annual fundraising drive. Please see & act upon our appeal at https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com/2011/11/21/space-show-2011-fundraising-campaign.  We welcomed Josh Neubert back to the program to discuss the  NASA Centennial Challenge, The Night Rover Challenge.  Please visit these websites for more information and email alerts:  www.nightrover.org and www.nasa.gov/offices/oct/early_stage_innovation/centennial_challenges/night_rover/index.html.  This was a one hour discussion without a break.  Josh started out by describing the Night Rover Challenge which is to develop mobile systems to collect solar energy, store that energy, and later use it productively.  The innovation will consolidate in a contest for simulated lunar rovers maximizing energy to run for two weeks day and night and survive the cold lunar night.  Josh told us about the Challenge time line and the sole focus on solar power and storage.  As you will hear, the prize is $1.5 million with first, second, and third place winners.  Terry asked technical questions about the potential battery packs and the maximum size of the rovers.  We learned that the biggest size would probably be in the range of the Curiosity rover on the way to Mars with a much smaller size on the other end of the measurements.  Michael asked if the power sources would be required to meet the legal standards required under international law to preserve the environment of outer space in regards to potential hazardous materials that may contaminate the outer space environment. Josh said yes, those standards would be part of the requirements for the competition.  Several listeners asked if non-U.S. citizens could participate in the Challenge and if there were ITAR considerations.  We learned that non-U.S. citizens could participate but were not eligible to win the prize money.  I asked who was most likely to participate in the challenge. Josh suggested students of all ages and grades, plus the do it yourself community, entrepreneurs, smaller businesses, etc.  We also talked about sponsorship opportunities as NASA does not cover operating expenses.  Another listener asked about the use of social media for the Night Rover outreach program.  As you will hear, this Challenge will make use of both social media and collaboration in getting the message out and participants in the challenge.  Near the end of the program, we discussed the proximity ofSilicon Valley, NASA Ames, and the significance of these communities to all the contestants involved in the challenge.  Josh closed by stressing how this program inspires, excites, and jump starts the best and the brightest to innovate, be creative, and to produce!  If you have questions about the Night Rover Challenge, there is a contact link on their website.  Please post your Space Show comments/questions on the blog URL above.