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Dr. Charles Limoli, Tuesday, 7-7-15 July 8, 2015

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Dr. Charles Limoli, Tuesday, 7-7-15

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What Happens to your Brain on the Way to Mars

Guest: Dr. Charles Limoli. Topics: We discussed space radiation in the context of his paper, “What Happens To Your Brain On The Way To Mars?” Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience. We welcomed Dr. Charles Limoli to the program for this 90 minute discussion on space radiation and astronauts, especially flying in deep space, going to Mars or back to the Moon, evening residing on the Moon or Mars. You can read his paper which has been uploaded to The Space Show blog for this program. During the first segment, Dr. Limoli outlined the basics of his research. Before going deeper into the topic, I asked him several questions about the use of rodents and mice for the experiments, the possible use of other animals, the constraints and limitations of radiation simulation experiments, plus how these radiation experiments and doses differ from humans getting radiation treatment for cancer or other medical problems. We had quite the discussion on rodent brains compared to human brains, animal experiments in general, plus the protocols used in his experiments which were all carried out at Brookhaven. By the way, Dr. Limoli is a space advocate, he has received NASA funding for years, and he and his team have a great interest in radiation issues for human spaceflight. Dr. Limoli then took time to tell us how the experiments were conducted. Some of the discussion is technical so I suggest you read his paper which has been placed on TSS blog. Dr. Limoli went into significant detail to tell us how they conducted the experiments, applied the low dose radiation to the subjects, and how they evaluated the results. Don’t miss his description and analysis of the experiments. He said the changes were subtle measured 6-8 weeks out but he also said future papers may show that the cognitive changes continued to happen over a much longer period of time. In response to one of my questions, he said there was no sign of recovery. The primary changes that were observed and reported in the paper had to do with cognitive impairment which we discussed in detail throughout this program. I asked our guest about age, gender, race, and cultural differences. I also asked if NASA was now doing or might do in the future some genetic screening to find those best suited for a high radiation environment. Space settlement risks were talked about as was childbirth and pregnancy. Dr. Doug from S. California called to talk about GCR shielding. He wanted to inquire about using the stuff on the mission, food, water, supplies, etc. for shielding. He suggested the strategic placement of the stuff to maximize shielding. Dr. Limoli did say this was all factored in but that GCRs are non-directional so they come in from everywhere so such “stuff” shielding would only be partially helpful in protecting against radiation. For now, it would have to remain an unanswered question pending getting more research data. In this discussion, Dr. Limoli did explain the components of GCR and what they do to the body and the brain’s cognitive ability.

In the second segment, we took listener questions including several from our friend Dr. Logan. One such question wanted to focus on how deep you would need to go into the Martian surface to equal the protection of Earth’s radiation shielding. Our guest was not sure of the actual calculation but estimated 4-5 meters. Tim in Boston sent in a note quoting what Dr. Zubrin said about Dr. Limoli’s research project per his critique of the paper published in The Space Review May 11, 2015. Dr. Limoli said that what Dr. Zubrin was saying was wrong regarding the details of the experiment. It was a very interesting discussion so don’t miss it. Rhonda wanted to know what Dr. Limoli would say to Elon Musk were he charged with consulting for Elon for his Mars plan and desired mission. Don’t miss what he said he would tell Elon. Later in the segment, I asked our guest to connect the dots with radiation issues and the other human factors medical conditions. This too proved to be an interesting discussion so don’t miss this one either. Charles was asked to talk in more detail about the observed cognitive changes and the actual tests used to reach their conclusions. In his closing remarks, he stressed how important continued research was and strongly urged listeners to support science research, write our congressmen and women, lobby for and advocate more research as it is the research that will give us more information to mitigate and resolve our spaceflight challenges.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Dr. Charles Limoli through me.

Chris Carberry, Tuesday, 4-7-15 April 8, 2015

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Chris Carberry, Tuesday, 4-7-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2448-BWB-2015-04-07.mp3

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Guest: Chris Carberry. Topics: Explore Mars Humans2Mars Summit, Mars and moon discussion, affordable space policy, NASA budgets, private sector & more. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Chris Carberry back to the show to discuss Explore Mars events & activities. During the first segment of our 96 minute program, Chris started out by telling us about the upcoming Humans2Mars Summit planned for May 5-7 in Washington, DC. All the conference and registration information is available at http://h2m.exploremars.org. This discussion led me to asking him why we should go to Mars and why now. As part of this discussion, I challenged Chris on using tax payer money for a Mars mission rather than letting the private sector do it. In fact, he did get a listener question about this, suggesting that either Mars One or SpaceX take us to Mars, not the government. Eric sent in a note asking who we thought might be the next NASA administrator or at least who the candidates might be. He also wanted Chris to advise how best to influence officials, policy makers, members of congress, etc. to go to Mars. Chris offered several suggestions to this part of Eric’s two question email. Chris responded to emails about the Affordable Mars Workshop architecture for Mars that we have been hearing about over the past week, plus the recent NSS-SFF meeting where settlement seemed to be the agreed upon goal. Don’t miss what Chris had to say about these events as he attended both. Doug called from S. California to make the case for going back to the Moon on its own, not just as a stepping stone to Mars. Doug suggested that the lunar return folks team with the Mars folks to find the best way to do both missions as it should not be one or the other. He also wanted to make sure going back to the Moon did not delay going to Mars and that going to Mars did not delay or destroy the opportunities for returning to the Moon. Chris and Doug had a vibrant exchange on this subject, especially given this era of tight budgets & constraints.

In the second segment, John from Ft. Worth called to express a concern that going to Mars might end up like Apollo and after a few Martian visits, we quit that too. Chris explained why he did not think that would happen. Later, Dr. Lurio called and said that “these guys are ALL living in fantasy land, one version or another.” His call was to pick up from the email he sent us and to elaborate on his position which was hotly debated and challenged by Chris. One thing Chris and Charles agreed upon was that there would be no repeat of a so-called “Kennedy Moment.” As the show was ending, Chris went over the Humans2Mars Summit again and we talked about the need to start working on Mars plans rather than always just talking and “planning” about them.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Chris through the Explore Mars website or me.

Robert (Bob) Zimmerman, Tuesday, 1-14-14 January 15, 2014

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Robert (Bob) Zimmerman, Tuesday, 1-14-14

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2165-BWB-2014-01-14.mp3

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Guest:  Robert (Bob) Zimmerman.  Topics:  Bob Zimmerman covered a wide range of topics from commercial space to ground based telescopes.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.

We welcomed Bob Zimmerman back to the show for this two hour discussion.  Bob started the first segment with an overview of commercial space progress to date in 2014 which includes Space X Falcon 9 launch, Orbital’s launch to the ISS, the recent Virgin Galactic demo test plus other events.  SLS came up again and unfortunately took up time throughout the show.  As you will hear me say, I am sick of the pro and anti-SLS comments on the show and really need an SLS break as I imagine most listeners do as well. Unfortunately, callers and email questioners kept bring it back to our focus and Bob was not shy on commenting on SLS as he wants it cancelled.  We talked some about Virgin Galactic and XCOR, then I asked about Dream Chaser given the news it has been seeking international partners to continue the project.  Bob was next asked about the Chinese policy and their lunar lander.  He started comparing the Chinese program of today to the early Soviet Union program and suggested that like all space programs, they will make a significant contribution to changing the culture of the country.  We talked about the new Omnibus 2014 Budget Bill before congress and the increases to NASA, planetary science, commercial crew and more.  As we neared the break, Bob in Berkeley asked Bob the guest to opine on Inspiration Mars and Mars One.  Doug from S. California called with multiple questions before the break, starting out asking about Bob’s comments on the negatives for taking government money and wanting to know if that applied to Space Act Agreement recipients.  His last question directed to Bob and me was based on our being part of the space media and about influencing policy, culture, programs, etc.  Bob’s and my response continued into the second segment.

During the second segment, Trent chatted in from Australia, then Dave called in from Chicago to asked about the J2X engine.   Bob and I talked some more about making a policy impact, then I asked Bob for key issues that will emerge for the balance of the year.  He talked about Russia competing with private companies, HSF and Dragon, astronomy, ground based telescope improvements, and NASA science programs.  At the end, I asked about the new mission for Kepler Space Telescope to have it continuing doing useful and productive research for the rest of its life.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog and visit Bob website often, http://behindtheblack.com.  You can reach Bob through his website or through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Dr. Pascal Lee, Tuesday, 9-24-13 September 25, 2013

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Dr. Pascal Lee, Tuesday, 9-24-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2092-BWB-2013-09-24.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Pascal Lee.  Topics:  Dr. Lee discussed HSF for Mars, pending Mars mission, Mars science, Earth analogs & his new book, “Mission Mars.”  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.

We welcomed Dr. Pascal Lee back to the program to discuss HSF to Mars, pending Mars programs, his new children’s book, “Mission Mars” (www.scholastic.com/missionmars).  During the first segment of this 1 hour 58 minute program, Dr. Lee talked about our operating Mars rovers, Opportunity and Curiosity.  He talked about Curiosity looking for organics and the confusion over not finding methane.  I then asked our guest about the two potential HSF missions to Mars, Mars One and Inspiration Mars.  As you will hear, Dr. Lee was highly skeptical regarding Mars One and suggested it might not be good for the “cause.”  He was supportive of Inspiration Mars and had much to say about that mission and the likelihood of survival for the astronaut couple on board.  I asked him what he thought the impact on HSF and especially humans to Mars mission would be if the Inspiration Mars crew died.  He offered an interesting perspective on this depending where along the mission the crew died.  We also talked about possible NASA involvement in Inspiration Mars plus the challenges in the reentry given the capsule’s high speed coming back from Mars and entering our atmosphere.  I also asked if Inspiration Mars put a damper on many of the Phobos-Deimos mission plans.  Pascal was asked about the Mars One business plan modeled on the Olympics and virtual reality TV shows.  Pascal was not optimistic that such a plan could drive a Mars mission but did think there might be a place in a human Mars mission for a TV show.  Pascal then described the hostility of the Mars environment for human life. This is an interesting factual analysis of what the Martian environment is like & what it would mean for human survival.  Near the end of the first segment, we talked about Pascal’s first book, “Mission Mars” which is aimed for the 9-12 year old market.  Make sure you visit the book’s interactive website, www.scholastic.com/missionmars.  The book is officially released in November but teachers & others can order it now from the Scholastic site.  I also asked how he explained the potential for alien and microbial life to young kids, along with the risks to humans going to Mars.

In our second segment, we started off discussing the Drake Equation. Dr. Lee explained in detail why he believes that N in the equation is a very small number.  In summary, even if there are other intelligent worlds out there, they may be so few in number and so far away that for all practical purposes we are alone in the universe so we better be good stewards of what we have with Earth.  Pascal mentioned the dinosaurs in terms of the evolution of life on Earth and he noted how long it took for something like modern day humans to evolve (around 4.5 billion years).  Some listeners asked him if we were not so different from the dinosaurs given the violence and killing humans do to one another.  Next, we talked about the Humvee expedition as a Mars analog across the North West passage.  Known as the Northwest Passage Drive Expedition, this was an amazing trip.  A documentary was made and will be available next year. I will let listeners know when it is available.  From fuel to cold to polar bears to almost losing the Humvee by falling through the sea-ice, this was quite the expedition over a three year period.  Note what Dr. Lee said about the expedition challenges in comparison to what it would be like to living on Mars.  Briefly, as hard and challenging as the North West Passage Expedition was, it would be nothing compared to living on Mars!

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show Blog per the above URL.  You can email Dr. Pascal Lee at pascal.lee@marsinstitute.net.

Frank Stratford, Friday, 5-17-13 May 18, 2013

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Frank Stratford, Friday, 5-17-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2010-BWB-2013-05-17.mp3

Guest:  Frank Stratford.  Topics:  Commercial space and space travel business models and revenue generation.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information.

We welcomed Frank Stratford back to the program to discuss various commercial space business models, including nonspace revenue generating goals and objectives.  Frank is the founder of MarsDrive so for more information, visit their website at www.marsdrive.com.  During the first segment of our 1 hour 42 minute program, Frank introduced us to the topic in his April 22, 2013 Space Review article, “The Business of Space Travel” (www.thespacereview.com/article/2281/1).  Frank talked about the need to generate nonspace revenue while building up the space company & space revenue R&D, activities, & markets.  He cited SpaceX, Bigelow, & Blue Origins as examples.  This led to a discussion about markets & financing, plus estimated costs for a human spaceflight mission to Mars. Frank compared the Mars One $6 billion estimate to his own estimate from his research to be $15 billion.  Our first caller asked if big name investors associated with these early commercial space ventures created an expectation of success and may in fact turn out to not have been such a good idea.  The detailed discussion included ROI, Stratolaunch and the revenue cycle gap from up front/early capital needs to revenue generation later on in the project’s cycle.  We talked about the nonprofit or charity model and Inspiration Mars came to mind.  I entered the discussion with comments about the need for repeat customers, a commercial space success to model, unrealistic assumptions, the lack of due diligence, and the difficulty in cost estimates, especially when the cost of getting to the destination (the Moon for example) is unknown at this time.  Surrey Space & Technology was also brought up as an example of a good business to model.

In the second segment, our called pointed out a Moon & Back interview with Robert Bigelow in which our caller said Bob said he went into the r/e business to fund his space activities.  Later, he email in additional comments suggesting that just because a space venture or idea is not funded does not mean it’s a bad idea or concept. He then advocated NASA support such as with COTS and Commercial Crew.  Public/private partnerships were advocated as a good way to move forward with space development and exploration.  Frank was then asked if a failed commercial project would hurt the industry.  He said it was possible.  Another question came in regarding paying attention to human factors and if solutions would be available at the same time as engineering technology, financing, and maybe markets.  Frank said only if work moved forward on human factor solutions at the same time and at a similar rate.  He also advocated his own organization working the problems.  Listen to his reasoning behind this.  As the program was nearing close, Frank was asked if Curiosity found proof of life in the past or now, even the most basic life, if it would make HSF to Mars more of a priority.  Don’t miss Frank’s response.  In summary, Frank talked about the need for continuous incremental development.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog above.  If you want to email Frank Stratford, you can do so through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com.

The John Batchelor Show “Hotel Mars,” Wednesday, 4-18-12 April 19, 2012

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The John Batchelor Show “Hotel Mars,” Wednesday, 4-18-12

John Batchelor, Dr. Chris Impey, Dr. David Livingston

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1755-BWB-2012-04-18.mp3

Guests:  John Batchelor, Dr. Chris Impey, Dr. David Livingston.  Topics:  The origins of our Moon, life on Mars, Earth analogs to Mars.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. This program is archived on The Space Show website, podcasting, and blog sites with permission from John Batchelor. Please visit the John Batchelor Show website for more information about this fine program, www.johnbatchelorshow.com. The topics in this 11 minute segment focused on the origins of our Moon and finding microbial life on Mars.  We talked about the lunar impact theory and why it is still preferable to competing theories for the origins of our Moon.  After exploring the lunar origin theories, we focused on finding microbial life on Mars and talked about Earth analogs including asteroid craters, the Antarctic dry valleys, methane plus a few others.  Toward the end of the segment, John asked Chris about our technology for finding life, comparing what robots of today and the near future can do versus what humans can do at this time.  Chris provided a most interesting response, including a brief analysis of the cost benefits of each type of mission.  If you have questions or comments, please post them on The Space Show blog.  If you would like to send an email to either Mr. Batchelor or Dr. Impey, do so through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com and I will forward it for you.