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Dr. Jim Logan, Dan Adamo, Dr. John Jurist, Friday, 11-20-15 November 19, 2015

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Dr. Jim Logan, Dan Adamo, Dr. John Jurist, Friday, 11-20-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2589-BWB-2015-11-20.mp3

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Guests:  Dr. Jim Logan, Dan Adamo, Dr. John Jurist; Topics:  Humans to Mars, exploring vs. pioneering & more.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back Dr. Jim Logan, Dr. John Jurist, and Dan Adamo for a 1 hour 45 minute discussion about humans to Mars and a critique of the  “NASA’s Journey to Marts: Pioneering Next Steps in Space Exploration (Oct. 2015).”  Please note that our program completed in one long segment without a break.  We started off by asking Dr. Logan to summarize the recent New World Space Conference he attended in Austin, Texas.  Jim pointed out that there were lots of young students there and they seemed eager to hear his message and did not consider him a Debbie Downer.  Jim is an evidence based guy when it comes to space policy and programs, he is also well grounded in the sciences and engineering so he does not typically hang out in the usual space cadet la la land of make believe.  We noted that older, more seasoned space cadets often dismiss those with similar messages based on evidence and fact,  but Jim was impressed by the willingness of the younger group to consider evidence and facts. The other guests plus myself had much to say about this particular issue, then we moved on to Dan who wanted to talk about the paper he has uploaded on TSS blog containing his analysis and comments re the NASA Journey to Mars Document. If you have not yet read it, please do so at this time.  For Dan and our guests, there were issues about a poorly defined definition for exploration vs. pioneering, confusing the two in the Journey to Mars document, the need for congressional action to change the mandate to pioneering, then asking for the rational for pioneering or Martian settlement. Much was said about there being no business case or rational case at all for humans to be on the surface of Mars.  This was an overriding theme for the entire discussion.  Our guests kept asking the question, “why are we doing it.?  This referred to humans on the surface of Mars for pioneering purposes.  Note the definitions Dan used for exploration and pioneering earlier in the show.  Note also the differences Dan suggested for exploration.  Our guests talked about the challenges that make Martian settlement or pioneering beyond our reach at this time.  Dr. Jurist brought up radiation and microgravity issues along with other human factor issues.  Dr. Logan supported what John was saying and called for the need to know the gravity prescription.  Without knowing it, we cannot possibly be serious about sending humans to mars.  Our guests talked about nuclear thermal propulsion and several times they referenced the Aquarius Concept (www.spaceenterpriseinstitute.org/tag/aquarius-concept).  Cognitive decline was also discussed as a leading challenge.  The matter of the Twin Study on the ISS with astronaut Scott Kelly came up.  Jim said a sample size of one does not help as it would only lead to insufficient information.  Our guests talked about radiation shielding, its cost, and added mass.  Dan mentioned a recent Aviation Week article from a September issues saying that nuclear propulsion may have a timeline for development around 2022-24.  John had much to say about this.  John also brought up the economy, potential interest rate rises and the impact on space and NASA. Jim said we needed a 10% growth rate for our interplanetary work.  We addressed the economic issues for several minutes as it was an important part of our discussion.  Later, I mentioned the recent interest I was seeing from Space Show listeners regarding the pioneering of Venus with some sort of settlement in the upper atmosphere. Our guests pointed out the pros and cons for this & we contrasted it with pioneering on the surface of Mars.  Joe sent in an email asking for the action plan or steps to be taken to pioneer Mars.  Don’t miss how our guests responded to Joe’s question.  This provided the opening for more discussion about cislunar development.  Here, our guests had much to say, including rescue opportunities, the lack of a redundant vehicle in contrast to even Apollo 8. Dan talked about this issue in technical terms so don’t miss it.  Near the end of the program, SLS came up but in the context of problems with it regarding mass, the stages, Orion, abort and rescue, black zones and more.  Don’t miss what Dan had to say about SLS and technical problems and issues.  The issues Dan raised are not the typical issues one hears discussed when talking SLS.

Please post your comments on TSS blog.  You can reach either of the three guests through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com.

 

                                                                                                    JTMcommentaryR1A

Dr. Julie Robinson, ISS Chief Scientist, Friday, 7-31-15 August 1, 2015

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Dr. Julie Robinson, ISS Chief Scientist, Friday, 7-31-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2517-BWB-2015-07-31.mp3

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Guest: Dr. Julie A. Robinson. Topics: ISS research, the ISS 1 year study, the Twins Study, ISS science and more. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Dr. Julie Robinson, ISS Chief Scientist, to the program. During our 71 minute discussion, Dr. Robinson provided us with an overview of science on the ISS, specifically identifying two goals: 1: Research for BLEO; 2: Developing LEO for long term space use and for benefiting life here on Earth. We discussed the logistics of science on the ISS, the ISS international partnership and how ISS resources are allocated to the partners for science as well as other projects. Our guest further broke this down between Russian and the U.S. and then said that for the U.S. segment, the U.S. has about a 76% usage allocation of ISS resources. We talked about the science done on the ISS, the mix with government and commercial projects, then we started talking about the 1 year study with the Russian cosmonaut and American astronaut while at the same time doing the Twin Study with astronaut Scott Kelly on the ISS with his brother Mark Kelly here on the ground. Dr. Robinson spent much of the balance of our interview time going into the specifics of these concurrent studies, the investigation categories for each study, and more. Our guest fielded questions about the length of time for the study being fixed at one year rather than being longer and objective oriented. As you will hear, ISS logistics, using the Soyuz as a lifeboat, and the overall ISS operations and other experiments going on all contribute to why a one year study was settled on rather than a long duration study or one based on achieving certain accomplishments or objectives. Dr. Robinson talked about the possibility of future studies given that they anticipate issues and information from this first study suggesting more refined studies to be undertaken in the future. Listeners emailed our guest several questions including asking her about the assumed low science productivity on the ISS, a statement Dr. Robinson refuted with evidence. BJohn also asked about low gravity issues. Later, in a follow up question, BJohn asked about a Phobos mission and doing human spaceflight mission simulations on the station. Don’t miss Dr. Robinson’s response to these questions. Dr. Bill Rowe called to talk to her about CO2 buildup, oxidative stress, EVAs, and possible magnesium deficiencies in astronauts while in space. We talked radiation issues, the OSHA rules for maxing out on radiation, and finding astronauts for the long mission that would not be disqualified due to the OSHA radiation rules. Vision problems, fluid shifts and other complications were discussed throughout our interview with Dr. Robinson. A listener commented that both participants in the 1 year study were men and wanted to know about gender differences which Dr. Robinson addressed. Another listener wanted to know about shared access of the information and if it would be made available to the commercial industry, the space tourism industry, even Mars One as an example. Later in the segment, Dr. Robinson went into much more detail regarding the investigation categories for both the 1 year and the Twin Study. When talking about fluid shifts, she was asked about differences in the Russian approach as compared to the American approach. One example that she provided us was the Russian use of their Chibis suit which sucks fluid back down to the legs. In making additional points in reference to space settlement questions, Dr. Robinson talked about comparisons with space to early oceanic exploration and said that people are not living at sea for their entire life even today. Don’t miss this discussion. Based on other questions, the human gravity RX was discussed along with the use and challenges regarding centrifuges in space, alternative propulsion to get to a destination much quicker, and the fact that even a low gravity body is better for people than no gravity. Again, don’t miss the discussion. We talked more about behavioral studies, Dr. Doug asked a series of three questions that took us through to the end of our program with other listeners asking questions in-between Doug’s. For example, cognitive issues came up as did timelines and influences to making rapid research progress including money and financing. As we were about to end, I did ask about genetic screening, experimentation, and modification. Don’t miss what our guest had to say about this and why. As we were ending, I inquired about research plans once the ISS was deorbited. Again, don’t miss the options that were discussed with us. Dr. Robinson left us with thoughtful concluding comments you will want to hear, plus she provided us with the social media contact information to follow ISS research on a regular basis.

Please post your comments/questions for this show on TSS blog above. You can reach Dr. Robinson at NASA or through me.

 

Dr. Robert Pappalardo, Monday, 7-27-15 July 28, 2015

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Dr. Robert Pappalardo, Monday, 7-27-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2514-BWB-2015-07-27.mp3

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Guest: Dr. Robert Pappalardo. Topics: The Europa Mission Development Plan plus information on this moon. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Dr. Robert Pappalardo to the show to discuss Europa and the upcoming Europa Mission by JPL which is now in the development phase. During the first segment of our 1 hour 27 minute program, Dr. Pappalardo talked about the origins of the NASA JPL Europa mission now in the development phase. He briefly described the experiments & instruments planned for the mission, then answered questions about the mission such as will the mission search for life. In response to this question, he said it would search for simple life through an indirect means which he described more fully in the second segment of the show. Our guest talked about having learned lots from the earlier Galileo spacecraft, especially about the Europa magnetic field and the likelihood of the oceans consisting of saltwater. Dr. Pappalardo also talked about the structure of Europa with the icy surface, oceans under the ice ad then a rocky base under the oceans. Dr. Pappalardo brought up the tidal heating of Europa and spoke to that quite a bit during the show. He talked about chemical energy and nutrients which may support simple life in the Europa oceans. Listener Joe asked how Europa could be in a habitable zone, even for simple life, given its cold temperatures. Our guest said Europa was expanding the definition of habitable zone & that the tidal heating was crucial to the possibility of finding simple life molecules. Don’t miss his complete response to this question. We talked mission timeline which was from about 2022 to the mid-2020s. We also learned that the Europa launch window was every 13 months. Our guest was asked about transit time to Europa. He said it depended on the rocket. With SLS it would be less than 3 years. Another rocket would take at least 3.5 years or longer. We also discussed bandwidth issues for getting data, images, and video back to Earth. I asked about the possibility of using cubesats as part of the Europa mission, then Bob talked about the radiation challenge which he said was significant because Jupiter acts as a giant particle accelerator. Don’t miss this discussion, especially the part abbot how much ice would be needed for effective shielding. Also, the Europa satellite will come as close as 25KM to the surface of Europa.

In the second segment, Bob went into detail about the scientific instruments that will comprise the Europa mission. He took us through each one in detail so don’t miss it. The radar pushes the technology envelope. So does the mass spectrometer. Harry wanted to know if a plutonium RTG would be used for power and if they were anticipating Cassini like protests. Bob said that they would be using solar power. Again, don’t miss the discussion. Cindy asked Bob about the length of the Europa day and year, another listener asked about Europa volcanoes and we learned that Europa has icy volcanoes. Amber wanted to know if the ice on Europa was the same as ice here on Earth. A UK listener wanted to know why Europa was not sucked into Jupiter by the planet’s huge gravity field. Don’t miss Bob’s explanation of this. Toward the end of the segment, he talked about the significance and importance of the search for simple life molecules/organics. Final questions concerned specific Europa classes at the college level & more on the European JUICE Mission and its plans for Europa. We agreed to stay in touch with one another regarding Europa and the upcoming mission so Dr. Pappalardo will be returning to The Space Show.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Dr. Pappalardo through me or JPL.

Al Globus, Sunday, 7-12-15 July 13, 2015

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Al Globus, Sunday, 7-12-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2505-BWB-2015-07-12.mp3

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Guest:  Al Globus;  Topics:  Space settlement in LEO and radiation over the equator.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back Al Globus to discuss his plan for LEO space settlement about 500 km above the equator to minimize radiation, shielding, and to improve the mass ratios to make settlement easier than in other locations.  During the first segment of our 1 hour 49 minute program, Al put forth his hypothesis that radiation over the equator was very light meaning that any space settlement would need minimal shielding or possibly no shielding.  This vastly improved the economics of developing and resupplying the settlement given its close proximity to Earth and the lower mass needed for the settlement and transportation.  This would be a “free space settlement” meaning it would be in orbit.  During this segment and the entire program, Al explained the radiation issues but you should read his paper on the subject, “Space Settlement the Easy Way.”  You can find this paper at http://space.alglobus.net/presentations/Easy.pdf.  Al spent lots of time explaining the radiation issues and talking about the initial settlements which may not have an economic purpose.  Al did go into the technical side of the radiation issues and his analysis for this location so don’t miss what he had to say about it plus as I suggested above, be sure to read his paper.  Later in the segment, he brought up space tourism and space hotels as a type of initial space settlement but one that would pave the way for actual settlements in LEO.  In the end, Al said that a LEO settlement is an easier way to get started with space settlement but stated many times that even a LEO space settlement above the equator would be challenging.  He did get several listener emails, some of which challenged his radiation analysis and the idea that little or no shielding would be necessary.  Al was also asked about space exploration but he was very clear that he was focused on space settlement.

In the second segment, we talked space policy, the U.S. congress and even the issue of space debris removal.  Marshal called to talk about radiation shelters from solar storms, Alexander wanted to know more about space solar power.  Adrian sent in a series of notes challenging Al and using the December 2004 Magnetar event.  Al was not familiar with it.  I inquired of the listeners to tell us what happened to the ISS during the event.  After the show, I got a follow up note from Adrian regarding the event and the ISS:  “Thanks to the magnetar’s great distance, the super flare posed no threat to humanity or Earth’s biosphere. The International Space Station was on the opposite side of Earth when the flare hit our planet, but even if the astronauts had faced the full fury of the blast, they would have received a radiation dose less than a dental X-ray. An SGR super flare’s pulse of high-energy radiation could seriously damage a planet’s atmosphere only if it occurred within about 6 light-years, according to Adrian L. Melott (University of Kansas)”  See more at:www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/the-brightest-blast/#sthash.VvmrtqKH.dpuf & www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/the-brightest-blast. I believe the point Adrian was trying to make was that no shielding even for a LEO settlement above the equator leaves the occupants w/o protection in case of an unexpected radiation related event. To this point, Al spent some time talking about risk and risk taking. Toward the end of the program, Al brought up the subject of space mining, Biosphere 2, and the size of the space station. During the show he also talked about artificial gravity and increased spin rates for people at 4-6 RPMs.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Al through his website, www.alglobus.net.

Dan Adamo, Sunday, 6-7-15 June 6, 2015

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Dan Adamo, Sunday, 6-7-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2488-BWB-2015-06-07.mp3

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Guest:  Dan Adamo.  Topics: Mars human spaceflight, robotic exploration, space policy, heavy lift economics, and much more.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back Dan Adamo to the show for this 2 hour 36 minute comprehensive discussion regarding HSF to Mars, the Second Mars Affordability and Sustainability Workshop report and much more.  During the first segment of our program, Dan started out by telling us the process used to engage him reviewing said report and writing his critique of it which is on The Space Show blog (https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com). Topics discussed in this segment included the use of Low Latency Telepresence (LLT) as compared to High Latency Telepresence (HLT), the absence of human factors and aerospace medical personnel in attendance and said issues missing from the workshop report.  Dan said the key missing information included radiation as well as microgravity concerns.  Dan then questioned the existence of a compelling rational for humans going to Mars.  This became a recurring discussion topic throughout today’s program.  Space settlement came up & so did a possible space race with China.  The subject of a rescue mission came up but there was a detailed rescue mission discussion near the end of the program in the second segment.  Dan was asked about the minimum crew size to operate an LLT program from Deimos or in orbit around Mars.  Several emails were sent in including one by Dr. Jurist addressing high acceleration upon return from Mars.  Dan then suggested the stepping stone approach, starting with cis-lunar space.  Doug sent in questions about heavy lift versus using already large commercial rockets.  Dan and Doug discussed this, then later in the second segment, Doug asked more questions on this topic.  For now they talked about going to Deimos with a Falcon Heavy.  Dan pointed out the need for many more launches and rendezvous missions as compared to one or two SLS type rocket launch.  He questioned if we can’t afford SLS launches, how do we afford even more launches and rendezvous missions.  Marshal emailed us wanting to know about the possibility of lava tube plans .  BJohn asked this guest about a possible Mars cycler & then we moved to the second segment.

In the second segment, I asked Dan what he thought the impact on space policy might be vis a vis the workshop being discussed on this program.  Don’t miss his reply.  Doug asked a question inquiring if for the same cost it would take to send humans to either Deimos or to the Martian surface, one could send many high-latency rovers to multiple locations far from each other to give the rovers many chances to discover evidence for life in different types of places?  This brought us several exchanges comparing LLT with HLT, heavy lift versus smaller rockets and more.  Doug and Dan has several exchanges during this segment, especially when the topic of rescue missions came up.  Ted in Boston asked about the rational for going to Mars, referenced the recent program with Dr. Zubrin, and the payoff or benefits for a human Mars mission.  Dan had much to say about this so don’t miss it.  John from Ft. Worth called to say we were not yet technically ready for Mars and we should use the stepping stone method and focus in cis-lunar development and exploration.  As an example, Dan & John talked about the need to know the actual gravity RX for humans. Dan said we should have a short arm centrifuge on the ISS helping to figure this out but that there was no policy to do that.  We turned to the topic of rescue and I told listeners what I found out about who pays for rescues when I did some quick and dirty research on this a few weeks ago.  The issue of rescue and how it might happen on a Mars mission or even in cis-lunar space came up with many listener emails including several by Doug putting forth various rescue scenarios.  For the most part, since we have no launch on demand, no rockets, pads or hardware sitting around ready to be used at a moments notice and we have to contend with launch windows, it does not seem feasible that a Mars rescue mission could be implemented, possibly not even a lunar rescue mission.  Doug suggested a scenario where multiple ships left for Mars at the same time and then if one got in trouble, the others could rescue the problem ship.  Dan talked about the physics and mass of what would be needed to do that. You decide if it might be feasible for such a rescue scenario to be implemented. Let us know your thoughts on the blog.  If the rescue party is already on Mars, rescue will be unlikely given the state of the art today.  Michael Listner suggested the absence of a realistic rescue plan may hinder the issuing of a launch license.  In his closing comments, Dan focused on the workshop critique saying that the sponsors would have been better served if participation had been opened up and had including human factors and aerospace medicine professionals.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog.  You can reach Dan Adamo through me.

AffordingMarsIIcommentaryR1

Greg Meholic, Friday, 6-5-15 June 6, 2015

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Greg Meholic, Friday, 6-5-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2487-BWB-2015-06-05.mp3

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Guest:  Greg Meholic.  Topics:  Advanced propulsion concepts and more.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back to the show Greg Meholic to speak about advanced propulsion concepts, rocket reusability, and much more.  During the first segment of our 84 minute program, Mr. Meholic first defined what he meant by the term advanced propulsion.  Given this definition, we moved forward to discuss various concepts, propulsion methods, and propulsion research. During this segment, we talked about several propulsion technologies and Greg said thumbs up or thumbs down to their being advanced propulsion.  When it came to nuclear, Greg classified it as an alternative propulsion method, not an advanced propulsion.  Again, don’t miss his definition.  We talked near and intermediate term advanced propulsion concepts though it does not appear anything is really close at hand.  His timeline for a possible advanced propulsion technology was around 20 years.  He said not only do we need to understand the physics much better,  but the propulsion method much compete with current systems and produce benefits including cost benefits.  As far as choke points on advanced propulsion, he said understanding the fundamental physics involved was a big one.  We then talked about funding which is now mostly from companies and other private investor oriented sources.  I asked lots of questions about funding, especially how does one know when the point is reached to either kill the project or keep it going.  Don’t miss what he said about this.  Listeners also asked many questions.  In replying to one listener, he said it would be hard to beat chemical rockets to LEO but the door opens up BLEO though the Moon can be done with chemical rockets.  When asked about the anti-nuke movement and the impact on the nuclear rocket, he had some interesting observations, especially regarding the views of younger people.  When asked for leading advanced propulsion people and concepts, he mentioned former Space Show guest Dr. James Woodward and his work with Mach’s Principle several times during our show.  Greg was also asked about the work of Dr. Sonny White at JSC for warp drive and M drive.  Greg had much to say about his work including Q thruster and M drive.  John from Ft. Worth called in to talk about M Drive & Mach’s Principle along with gravity and magnetic frequencies.

In the second segment, Ashley sent in an email asking about going to the Moon and Mars for settlement and sustainability, wondering if advanced propulsion was needed for either location.  You might be surprised by Greg’s response to this question so listen carefully.  He did say there would be different requirements for the Moon and Mars.  With Mars, he also spoke about radiation and travel times.  Greg then had some things to say about artificial gravity.  One of his comments was that if we understood more of the physics, an eventual advanced propulsion system might enable an artificial gravity system without spinning or the need for tethers.  Brad in Tucson sent in a note asking about reusable first stage rocket launch systems.  Greg was delighted with the question as he works on such systems in his day job and he had much to say and offer about reusable first stage rockets.  He went through a brief summary of some of his work plus those attempting to design such systems including SpaceX.  I asked about a payload penalty with reusability.  Don’t miss his answer.  Our next caller was Marshall and he took us back to the artificial gravity discussion.  Marshal was asking questions about the amount of time spent in 1g as opposed to various fractional gravity loads.  As the program was ending, Greg received the final question which dealt with comparing the quality of government research to private sector research.  He reminded the listener that there very little to no government research funding for advanced propulsion, that it was almost all private sector funding.  He said the private funding was investor based so it comes with a commercial profit focus.

Please post your comments on The Space Show blog above.  Greg Meholic can be reached through me using drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Dr. Robert Zubrin, Tuesday, 6-2-15 June 3, 2015

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Dr. Robert Zubrin, Tuesday, 6-2-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2485-BWB-2015-06-02.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Robert (Bob) Zubrin.  Topics:  Mars Society Convention 2015, Convention debate topics, HSF to Mars issues & concerns.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back Dr. Robert (Bob) Zubrin to discuss the upcoming Mars Society Convention in Washington, DC from August 13-16, 2015 (see www.marssociety.org/a/marssociety.org/www/conventions/18th-annual-international-mars-society-convention). During our 1 hour 45 minute program without a break, Dr. Zubrin not only told us about the upcoming Mars Society Convention for 2015, but talked about Human Spaceflight (HSF) to Mars by addressing many specific issues, concerns, and topics.  Starting off with the Convention, it is August 13-16, 2015 at the Catholic University of America in Washington, DC.  Special hotel prices are available at the Phoenix Park Hotel (see www.marssociety.org/conventions/18th-annual-international-mars-society-convention/hotel-and-transportation for reservation details).  Bob told us about the keynote speakers but also the special format this year for debates. Several topics will be debated including Moon vs. Mars, Mars One feasibility with the MIT team and Bas from Mars One, how best to achieve commercial space plus other topics.  Bob then started getting questions from listeners & myself on a wide variety of Mars HSF mission topics.  To start with, I asked Bob to comment on what several recent Space Show guests have said about our not being ready for HSF to Mars for a variety of reasons including radiation, other human factors, the costs, and the trip risk which would turn it into a survival mission and nothing more.  Before Bob responded to my specific question, he commented on the recent radiation paper, “How a trip to Mars would mess with your brain.”  Bob was very critical of this paper and spent time going through it and showing where he believed it to be bogus.  You can read Bob’s critique at www.marssociety.org/home/press/announcements/invalidclaimsmadeforwhathappenstoyourbrainonthewaytomarspublication.  Bob spent a good amount of time debunking the original article so don’t miss his comments.  Before moving on, I again asked Bob to respond specifically to what my guests had said as none of them mentioned the paper in question.  We had an interesting discussion on risk taking and the role of government as part of our discussion.  John in Florida called to ask about the concept of a nuclear explosion on Mars per Space Show guest Dr. John Brandenberg.  This led to questions about shortages of PU238, space policy & political leadership. Doug had questions about an Earth Return Mission and later he eventually called in to get a more precise answer to what he was asking.  We talked about one way missions, how best to explore Mars, and the responsible way to tackle the eventual settlement on Mars.  Emmet from NY called in to ask about Elon Musk Mars and NASA plans and why they seem to ignore going for artificial gravity.  Again, Bob had much to say about this issue which he said was different for Musk and NASA.  He felt Musk would address it as the challenge became more real for him.  As far as NASA goes, he said it was criminal to have avoided the issue for decades.  Don’t miss his comments.  Jackie emailed in a question about character in the book “The Martian,” wanting to know if crew were stranded on Mars could they actually do some of the things the character in the book did to survive.  You might be surprised by Bob’s answer.  Matt in Germany asked a question about Mars via the Moon, BJohn asked about the use of a cycler for Mars transportation & Kirk called to talk about an article he had read about fossil ice at Valles Marineris.  Kirk will post a comment about this on the blog after the show is archived.  Next up was the subject of terraforming Mars. Bob had much to say about this plus he offered a possible terraforming timeline. Doug then wanted to know if Bob was referring to paraterraforming when he mentioned the use of Domes on the Martian surface but Bob said no.  Tim called to talk about the radiation paper discussed earlier and mentioned a second experiment saying that antioxidants negated the radiation effects. Bob was not familiar with the second study but summarized his comments about the paper.

BJohn emailed in about rocket advances from the Saturn V for a Mars mission, we talked about what it would mean to use a Falcon Heavy for Mars missions, then Marshall called to inquire about sources of power on Mars, particularly nuclear and getting a large enough nuclear reactor to Mars.  Marshall and Bob talked about a Topaz like reactor.  Another question came up about using the Martian moons for the early human missions rather than Mars.  Bob explained why in his mind this was not a good idea.  He then compared the radiation dosage of long term ISS usage for ISS astronauts to the transit time and radiation dosage for a Martian crew.  Don’t miss what Bob had to say about this.  In Bob’s concluding comments, we focused on the upcoming convention but also on the importance NASA and a HSF mission to Mars in the context of the world today.  This is an important part of our program so don’t miss it.  In concluding, Bob said “It is time again for NASA to astound the world to show what free men can do.”  You will likely hear me use Bob’s closing statement on many future Space Show programs.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above.  You can reach Dr. Zubrin through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Dr. Erik Seedhouse, Monday, 6-1-15 June 2, 2015

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Dr. Erik Seedhouse, Monday, 6-1-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2484-BWB-2015-06-01.mp3

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Guest: Dr. Erik Seedhouse. Topics: Mars, radiation, return to the Moon, Virgin Galactic, ISDC, suborbital industry & more. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Dr. Erik Seedhouse back to the show for a variety of timely discussion topics. During the first segment of our 1 hour 37 minute program, Erik started out making comparisons with past polar exploration and going to Mars. He also said that going to Mars anytime in the foreseeable future would be a survival trip. We talked about Erik’s books on Virgin Galactic, Polar Exploration and Mars which will soon be released, and additional books on Dragon, Mars One, Mars via the Moon, and XCOR, all to be released over the coming months. Erik then spoke about his ISDC talk re comparing polar exploration to going to Mars and commented on the speaker following him, Dr. Logan (he was not sure of the first name but we think it was our friend, Dr. Jim Logan). He talked about radiation shielding and water per what Dr. Logan had to say including the need for 10 meters of water shielding to equal the protection here on Earth. Erik had much to say about radiation and shielding which prompted multiple emails from Dr. Doug in S. California seeking clarification and adding to Erik’s comments. I read all of Doug’s radiation themed emails throughout the first and second segment of today’s program. Don’t miss Erik’s conclusions regarding the radiation risks and shielding needs for a Mars mission, how astronauts would live and work on Mars as well as the Moon. Erik next talked about Virgin Galactic and XCOR saying he thought XCOR would be the first to fly commercially. When asked about the biggest passenger risk on a suborbital flight, Erik said it would be the cardio-vascular risks. Erik got questions regarding SpaceX, Elon Musk, and the Mars Colonial Transporter. He again stressed the way to go to Mars was via the Moon and that would be his preferred space policy. He also put forth his Mars simulation study plan. Don’t miss it, I think it’s a good one.

In the second segment, John from Florida called to comment on delays and how long commercial suborbital flight was taking since the success of Spaceship 1. John seemed to compare the lack of progress with suborbital flight to how much progress was made with aviation and in particular jet travel. I took the first pass at responding to him, then Erik offered his comments. What do you think? Let us know on the blog. Erik was then asked about other human factor issues than radiation. Dr. Seedhouse went through a laundry list of health risks and concerns for astronauts in deep space and on long duration spaceflight. He was then asked about the regulatory regime for suborbital space, then he wanted to define space given Virgin Galactic may not flight beyond 50km which is not space. Don’t miss what he had to say about this and the overall health risks for astronauts in deep space. Near the end of the show, Erik addressed space settlement. He said it would be a natural expansion and would happen automatically with returning to the Moon and going to Mars via the Moon. In his concluding comments, he suggested that advocates and space enthusiasts need to adjust expectations and understand the technology involved because its harder and more costly to do things in space, including suborbital space, than originally thought and expected.  

Please post your comments on TSS blog above. You can reach Dr. Seedhouse through me @ drspace@thespaceshow.com.


 

Dr. Michael Schmidt, Sunday, 5-17-15 May 18, 2015

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Dr. Michael Schmidt, Sunday, 5-17-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2474-BWB-2015-05-17.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Michael Schmidt.  Topics: Personal spaceflight medicine, Omics, targeted genetic countermeasures.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed back Dr. Michael Schmidt for updates and more information regarding Personal Spaceflight Medicine. Note that the abstract referenced in the second segment has been uploaded to the blog for this show.  During the first segment of our 92 minute program, Dr. Schmidt defined personal spaceflight medicine for us & talked about targeting individuals for specific countermeasures to human factors risks for longer duration spaceflight safety.  We talked about artificial gravity and radiation with our listeners asking questions about both fields.  Our guest cited several examples to make his point.  At one point he talked about the current twin study underway on the year long plus ISS experiment with a Russian cosmonaut as well.  Questions were asked about using pharmaceuticals in space, how they might react with different people, and the distribution methods so far which are not great.  At one point, Dr. Doug emailed in asking about the use of omics for space travel issues and if in fact the use of omics would reveal even more questions that cannot be answered, ultimately delaying long duration HSF missions even longer than they are delayed now.  Don’t miss the guest response to Doug’s question.  Kris emailed in asking about the use of deliberate hypothermia to store Mars bound astronauts, and then another Doug question came in about selecting the best people based on omics for a mission.  Near the end of the segment, I asked our guest if he had done work for Mars One. He explained their limited capacity relationship which I assume ended.

In the second segment, BJohn asked about the possibility of astronauts sleeping in a small vertical centrifuge.  Dr. Rowe called to talk about the issue relating to pharmaceutical use in space.  he talked about delivery methods, malabsorption, etc.  Later, Dr. Schmidt brought up the damage done from sleep deprivation and showed how this is a potential problem for space missions.  Doug emailed in a question about GCRs and radiation, then Dr. Schmidt talked about his new paper on BDNF with his associate Dr. thomas Goodwin, “Protecting Neural Structures and Cognitive Function During Prolonged Space Flight by Targeting The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Molecular Network.”  We talked about BDNF and spaceflight, exercises, mitigation measures, and more. He referenced Mars simulation, behavioral issues and more. You don’t want to miss this discussion.  Dr. Schmidt provided us with excellent closing remarks.

Please post  your comments/questions on TSS blog above.  You can reach Dr. Schmidt through me.

SCHMID~4

Open Lines, Sunday, 1-25-15 January 26, 2015

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Open Lines, Sunday, 1-25-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2400-BWB-2015-01-25.mp3

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Guest:  Open Lines with Dr. David Livingston.  Topics:  We discussed a wide range of space topics from Mars colonization to radiation issues, UFO files, the SpaceX-AF litigation, the Nixon space policy and much more.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

Welcome to our Open Lines program.  During the first segment of our two hour seven minute program, we took several calls starting with John in Florida who wanted to talk about early Mars colonization, one way Mars trips and similar topics.  He wondered about buried Martian ruins deep under the ground and I drew an analogy to archaeological digs here on Earth in finding towns and early civilizations buried on top of one another far below the surface of the Earth.  John from Ft. Worth called in to talk about the Al Worden interview in which Al did not think there was any reason for returning to the Moon. You can read the Worden interview at http://www.dw.de/apollo-15-command-module-pilot-alfred-m-worden-nasa-took-a-step-backwards/a-18211468.  I also asked John about the release of thousands of UFO documents, http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2015/01/19/air-force-ufo-files/21985651.  John and I then returned to discuss more about the Worden interview, his comments on the shuttle, the ISS, Saturn V and more.

In the second segment, Michael Listner called to update us on the settlement of the SpaceX Air Force litigation.  Michael summarized the mediation and the settlement details for us.  Dr. Doug from S. California called to talk about a variety of topics including radiation.  He referred to an Al Globus article regarding his view on shielding requirements. You can read Al’s article here:  http://space.alglobus.net/papers/RadiationPaper2014.pdf.  Doug also talked about a permanent base on the Moon and his Mars Return Option.  Dwayne was the next caller and he spoke of John Logsdon’s upcoming book on Apollo and the Nixon space policy.  He talked about all the budget cuts and slashes back then and how they negatively impacted the program. Dwayne also talked about the nuclear thermal rocket and the fact that it can’t go active until it out of Earth orbit.  Adrian sent in an email about radiation debris putting satellites at risk.  Here is the older NY Times article he sent me:  http://www.nytimes.com/1995/02/26/world/radioactive-debris-in-space-threatens-satellites-in-use.html.  Tim called to debunk the Mars crew living in a tuna can analogy and instead wanted to compare it to submarines.  He got some pushback on his submarine analogy.  Earlier, Jon from NJ had sent in a note about the SpaceX satellite plans & what this may mean for SpaceX.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog.  You can reach any of the participants through me.