SWF-Space Show Webinar, Friday, 12-18-15 December 17, 2015Posted by The Space Show in Uncategorized.
Tags: 1 to 40 Gigahertz range, antennas, atmospheric absorption, atmospheric interference, Beau Backus, C-band, David Hartshorn, Dept. of Defense, enforcement., government regulation, high altitude communications platforms, higher satellite operational frequencies, Intentional RFI, International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT), ITU, KA band, lower frequency characteristics, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), receivers, satellite communications equipment, satellite operators, satellite user groups, Secure World Foundation, Space Data Associations, Space Frequency Coordination Group, spectrum, Terahertz bands, training, transmitters, UAVs, unintentional RFI, United Nations, Victoria Samson, wireless industry, World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC)
SWF-Space Show Webinar, Friday, 12-18-15
http://vimeo.com/channels/thespaceshow- Video of webinar
Featured Guests: VICTORIA SAMSON,The Secure World Foundation; BEAU BACKUS, Senior Project Manager for Spectrum @ The Aerospace Corporation; DAVID Hartshorn, Secretary General of GVF
Guests (Webinar): Victoria Samson, Beau Backus, David Hartshorn. Topics: Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), satellite operators, users, wireless, & much more. This program was recorded as a webinar which you can view at https://vimeo.com/channels/thespaceshow. You can also listen to it as an audio only program as you would any archived Space Show program. Please note that there were some audio issues as all guests were using cell phones. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.
We welcomed Victoria Samson, Beau Backus and David Hartshorn to this Secure World Foundation-Space Show webinar to address radio frequency interference issues facing the satellite user and operators, plus much more. In addition, both Beau and David have reference material relevant to our webinar and the issues we discussed uploaded on The Space Show blog for this program date. Make sure you see these uploads and make use of the information in the documents: (https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com/2015/12/17/swf-space-show-webinar-friday-12-18-15). In the first 60 minute segment, each of our guests provided us with a short introductory statement regarding radio frequency (RF) issues plus their background & experience in the RF industry and policy fields. This was followed by Ms. Samson offering us a comprehensive assessment of RFI issues as of the close of 2015 given the increasing democratization of access to space. Do not miss her analysis as to why the RF spectrum is a critical component of space activities. Our guests talked about the traditional players in this industry, then they explained how the “player” filed has been expanding as space access expands. We also talked about intentional and unintentional interference with our guests providing us with a good working definition for each interference category. Several examples of intentional and unintentional interference were given. One of the biggest intentional (jamming) interference events was rooted in the Arab Spring movement. This came up several times during our webinar. We also learned that the overwhelming percentage of interference events were unintentional by at least 90% of all interference events. We talked about what causes an unintentional event, the need for better equipment and training, plus both the U.S. and international regulatory environment for spectrum regulation, enforcement and consequence for violations. Examples were provided including the recent Bolivia World Cup television event. As for intentional interference, we talked about & defined jamming. We talked about possible solutions though nation’s pursue their interests and as was evidenced in the Arab Spring movement, it was in the interest of some countries to jam radio signals from reaching desired groups of people and markets. Our guests talked about the difficulty in jamming enforcement given all nations do it through their military institutions and warfare when in their interest. Near the end of the first segment, our guests introduced us to the World Radiocommunication Conference 2015 (WRC) which was recently held in Geneva (see www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/conferences/wrc/2015/Pages/default.aspx) and the issues brought about by the wireless industry accessing C-band frequencies from 3.4-4.2 GHz as there can be wireless interference with satellite communications. Our guests explained the wireless and satellite industry positions in this issue. For the balance of the first segment, our guests talked about wireless industry issues, the challenges brought about by these issues, plus frequency allocations as a way to possibly mitigate some of the challenges and to protect important satellite band communications from potential wireless interference.
In the second segment, our guests explained more about C-band and why its in demand and its advantages. We talked about end user groups and their needs along with those of the satellite operators. The issues surrounding trade offs for different uses of spectrum were discussed in a way that clearly identified issues needing resolution. In this part of our webinar, we talked about how spectrum issues had changed and evolved over time, especially with the wireless industry’s better use of C-band. Our guests were asked about the physical imitations of various parts of spectrum. In response to these questions, our guests talked about atmospheric issues, weather, and more, plus what part of spectrum was most impacted by a specific type of event or condition. Victoria brought up the issue of UAVs (drones) and our guests received a question about cubesat communications and FCC regulations. We also discussed high altitude communications platforms which contain several communication advantages such systems. . Don’t miss the discussion on all of these issues. Our guests received a question about additional bands in the spectrum and in response, they told us how more and more of the higher bands were starting to be used by industry players. Toward the end of our program, we focused on solutions. Our three guests told us how the industry & the regulatory bodies were responding to the challenges, especially with a focus on better training given that operator errors have been proven to be a major source of unintentional interference. Focusing on better equipment was also mentioned, both on the transmission and receiving end as equipment problems cause another large part of the unintentional interference issues. They also discussed developments and changes in the wireless industry to resolve significant interference issues when wireless uses some of the same satellite bands or frequency bands very near the satellite bands. All three of our guests offered meaningful closing comments you will definitely want to hear.
Please post all comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach any of our guests through their websites or through me.
The slide presentation is here: Backus-Additional Information
From Mr. Hartshorn: A YouTube documentary on jamming: https://youtu.be/St9kKCtpGYA
Dr. Space, Host The Space Show
Space Show-Secure World Foundation Webinar, Monday, 9-22-14 September 22, 2014Posted by The Space Show in Uncategorized.
Tags: Asia Development Bank, climate change, cubesats, draught, drones, Earth disaster mitigation, earthquakes, Ebola, geo spatial communities, ground based systems, Group on Earth Observations (GEO), International Charter, Laura Delgado Lopez, NOAA., satellite data & technology., Search & Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking (SARSAT), Secure World Foundation, space awareness, space-based Earth observation, water damage disasters, weather issues, Yana Gevorgyan, Yusuke Muraki
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Space Show-Secure World Foundation Webinar, Monday, 9-22-14
Laura Delgado López, Project Manager, Secure World Foundation; Yana Gevorgyan, Senior International Relations Expert, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Yusuke Muraki, Space Technology Specialist, Asian Development Bank
https://vimeo.com/107098124 – Webinar Video
Guests: Laura Delgado Lopez, Yana Gevorgyan, Yusuke Muraki. Topics: Using space and satellite resources to mitigate Earth disasters. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience. You can view the webinar at https://vimeo.com/107098124. Note that several guests used cell phones so you will hear audio issues from time to time. Please note that guest and panel member Yusuke Muraki posted a Power Point presentation on this topic which can be found at the end of The Space Show blog archive summary (https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com).
We welcomed Laura Delgado Lopez, Yana Gevorgyan, & Yusuke Muraki to the program to discuss the use of space resources and satellites for mitigating Earth-based disasters. During the first segment of our 1 hour 58 minute webinar, Laura Delgado Lopez introduced us to the discussion topic. Laura talked about the benefits & value all people receive from the use of satellite tools in aiding disaster management. She explained how space tools were used in decision making & how there are more and more new applications coming to market all the time. Yana Gevorgyan explained the role of NOAA as a government science agency & she talked about extreme weather events. As a science agency, she also spoke to the science & technology benefits along with the increasing use of international data sharing . Yusuke Muraki spoke to the role of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in regional economic development, regional disaster management, all being assisted by satellite technology. They focused on decision management as their programs work to alleviate poverty in the area, track rainfall data & more. He cited several recent Asian weather and storm events as examples of their role & data sharing among agencies and governments. I asked our guests about the current & future role of cubesats in this field. Laura spoke to the reliability of cubesats & the limited amount of data they could send back. She said cubesats were evolving & would one day be more valuable in this area. Yusuke said cubesats were not yet fully ready for a role in this field but that as they become more powerful they will play an increasingly important role over time. A listener asked about the use of drones. Yusuke said they were not very good for covering large areas. Listeners asked our panel about forecasting and even prevention rather than using these tools for after the event assistance. Yana suggested that since each disaster is unique, even extreme weather events, lots of data sharing and international cooperation takes place. She listed several types of disasters that are better understood than others. Slow onset disasters such as draughts are not as well understood as the extreme weather event or those that unfold very fast. Another listener emailed in about space assets being used for he Ebola outbreak. Lots was also said about the role of the U.S. leadership in global disaster management. Other topics in this segment included disaster policy, federal data management, and accessing data by the public. As the segment was closing, I asked our guests if the space tools were applicable/useful for individuals impacted by disasters. As you will hear, the space/satellite tools are not that useful for individuals at this time but more work needs to be done & is being done in this area. I also inquired about the space IQ of the public and if it was important for people to know that space assets were being used to help them in a disaster.
In the second segment, we talked about search and rescue (SARSAT). Our guests said that since 1982 about 35,000 people had been rescued in the U.S. alone. Several listeners and I asked about the data, where did it come from, what type of data was it, was there a central clearing house, etc. Later, I asked what the worst type of disaster there was for management. Yusuke said the worst disasters dealt with water related activities. Due to comments about earthquakes, tornados, floods, even tsunamis, we learned that people get used to the warnings and even try to go to locations to see the disasters unfold. This has proved to be very risky, even the getting used to the warnings is risky on the part of people. Harold emailed in asking if space tools can stop a disaster from happening. We also talked about lessons learned and if the lessons were being applied to better handle future disaster events. Another set of listener inquiries addressed the question of the cost of data and if in a disaster situation, do organizations and governments buy the data or get it for free. The answer was mixed as you will hear. Later, listeners asked each guest about the biggest challenges in the field for using space assets for disaster management here on Earth. Each of our guests offered summary and closing comments, both as to the work done by their respective organizations as well as from the general perspective of available space tools and how they are being used and will likely be used in the future.
Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog above. Each of our panel members can be reached through me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Brian Weeden, Wednesday, 10-23-13 October 23, 2013Posted by The Space Show in Uncategorized.
Tags: " Minitrack, "Gambling with a Space Fence: An analysis of the decision to shut down the Air Force Space Surveillance Fence, Brian Weeden, continuous wave radar, DOD budgets, GPS, Gravity the movie, Naval Research Lab, pulsed radar, S Band Space Fence, Secure World Foundation, sequestration, space debris, space fence, Space Security System, Space Track, stealth satellites, The Space Review, timemation, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy
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Brian Weeden, Wednesday, 10-23-13
Your Amazon Purchases Can Help Support The Space Show/OGLF (www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm)
Guest: Brian Weeden. USAF Space Fence for national security. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.
We welcomed Brian Weeden back to the program to discuss the issue of the shutting down of the USAF Space Fence. Our discussion was based on Brian’s August 26, 2013 Space Review article, “Gambling with a Space Fence: An analysis of the decision to shut down the Air Force Space Surveillance Fence” at www.thespacereview.com/article/2357/1. During the first segment of our 1 hour 29 minute discussion, Brian provided us with a brief history of the Space Fence, what it has been used for, its technical characteristics, and it recent cancellation partially due to sequestration regarding its approximate $15 million annual budget expense. Brian also explained its capabilities in detecting spy satellites, space debris and other objects and the size of objects which it can detect. He discussed both continuous wave radar and pulsed radar, pointing out that the fence which dated from the late 1950’s, was uncued. Richard Easton called in as his father Roger was one of the developers for the space fence in January 1958. Richard contributed greatly to our discussion. Brian then talked about the probable replacement for the fence, an S Band fence which would result in higher frequencies enabling the detection of smaller objects, probably with a very high rate pulsed radar. Right now the S Band fence is estimated to cost about $1.8 billion but as you will hear, it may never be built. As to how our national security has been impacted without the fence operating, Brian said it was difficult to assess so listen carefully to his analysis. Brian also talked about challenging DOD budget issues, the difference in budget years with DOD as compared to the government as a whole, and again, sequestration.
In our second segment, Brian addressed several of the political issues surrounding the space fence issue. When asked how long it would take for the S Band system to become operational were it funded, he said around 2018. Two companies are competing to do it if and when the project is authorized and funded. We also talked about the U.S. sharing satellite tracking information with all satellite operators including private companies, thus using an international partnership to finance the space fence since it benefits everyone. As you will hear, there appears to be control and sensitivity issues which prevent the air force from going that route. Later I asked Brian about stealth satellites and then he took a listener question about the way space debris was portrayed in the movie Gravity. We spent some time discussing the impact of a movie like Gravity on the public regarding the space debris issue. As the program was ending, Brian said he was not that optimistic about a replacement fence and brought to our attention the need to upgrade computer systems that process the data. As you will hear, this is a substantial problem that is not being addressed.
Please post comments/questions on The Space Show blog. You can reach Brian through me or SWF.
SWF NEO Webinar, Sunday, 8-18-13 August 21, 2013Posted by The Space Show in Uncategorized.
Tags: Chelyabinsk NEO Impact, Dr. Mark Boslough, Dr. Ray Williamson, Dr. Tim Spahr, human spaceflight, impact probability, NASA budgets, Near Earth Objects (NEO) Impacts, NEO airbursts, NEO surveys., Planetary Defense, robotics, Secure World Foundation
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SWF NEO Webinar, Sunday, 8-18-13
http://vimeo.com/72803251 Webinar Video on Vimeo
Your Amazon Purchases Can Help Support The Space Show/OGLF (www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm)
Guests: Dr. Ray Williamson, Dr. Tim Spahr, Dr. Mark Boslough. Topics: NEO impacts and what’s being done to deal with the threat. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. YOU CAN WATCH THE WEBINAR VIDEO VERSION AT http://vimeo.com/72803251. You can listen to the audio as you would any Space Show program.
We welcomed our three panel members, Dr. Ray Williamson, Dr. Tim Spahr, and Dr. Mark Boslough to this 1 hour 31 minute Secure World Foundation sponsored webinar addressing NEO impacts and what’s being done to deal with the threat. During our fist segment, we introduced our panel members and each provided us with opening comments about planetary defense and the risk and issues concerned with Near Earth Object (NEO) impacts here on Earth. Among the many issues discussed were funding priorities, diversion of funds, the recent Chelyabinsk NEO impact in Russia, and they type of damage that can be done by a NEO impact, even a small one. We also talked about our present day capabilities, what we can detect and the NASA NEO survey. One of the listener questions led to a discussion on the risk rewards for prioritizing not only budgetary expenses for NEO searches and mitigation, but also the theory behind the strategy of identifying larger NEOs first and why that is the preferred methodology. Our guests mentioned about 400,000 items had been surveyed and cataloged so far. Marshall emailed in a question about the best location for placing telescopes for NEO searches. I also asked about NEO airburst and if they were as predictable as understanding nuclear weapon airburst. The answer was no because we know so very little about NEO airbursts in contrast to what we know about nuclear weapons. The segment ended with a short summary of what was happening policy wise in the field with SWF & other international space & policy agencies.
In the second segment, we started off talking about mitigation strategies and potential tools/methods that might be used. We talked about the time line needed to mitigate a potential NEO impact and learned that if it was within a few years of possible impact, the strategies would likely focus on damage control, evacuation, and such here on Earth. We discussed more about NEO budgets and priorities, then I asked each of our guests to rate their level of satisfaction with the progress being made in the field. Each one provided his own satisfaction rating with his reasons for the rating. I’m sure you will find their comments most interesting. Near the end of our webinar, our panel members were asked for their thoughts on human spaceflight and the possible competition for scarce funds with the planetary science part of NASA and space as well as the planetary defense budget. While they all liked human spaceflight, you might be surprised by the answers each of our panel members provided us. Guest closing comments were excellent so don’t miss them.
Please post questions/comments on The Space Show blog URL above. You can email each guest through me.
Dr. Michael Simpson & Langdon Morris, Sunday, 12-9-12 December 10, 2012Posted by The Space Show in Uncategorized.
Tags: " Aerospace Technology Working Group (ATWG), "International Cooperation For The Development of Space, Chinese Space Program, Dr. Michael Simpson, economic growth, Futron Space Competitive Index, human spaceflight, international participation in the space sector, ISS, ITAR, Langdon Morris, NASA, NewSpace, niche space markets, niche space specialization, public/private partnerships, Secure World Foundation, space policy, U.S. spaceports
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Dr. Michael Simpson & Langdon Morris, Sunday, 12-9-12
Tags: ATK Spacecraft Systems & Services, Brian Weeden, Curiosity, Darpa Phoenix Satellite Servicing, Falcon 9. , GEO, government satellites, GPS, human on-orbit servicing, Intelsat, Jr., Kickstarter., launch costs, launch state liability issues, launch vehicle insurance, LEO, Maj. General USAF (Retired) James B. Armor, NASA Restore Mission., on-orbit satellite servicing, Richard DalBello, satellite rendezvous & docking, Secure World Foundation, selling satellites, space debris, space salvage issues, space situational awareness, STEM education, Vivisat
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Space Show-SWF Webinar, On-Orbit Satellite Servicing, Sunday, 8-19-12
https://vimeo.com/channels/thespaceshow – Webinar Video
Guests: Brian Weeden, Richard DalBello, Major General, USAF (Retired) James B. Armor, Jr.. This is a SWF sponsored webinar addressing issues related to the on-orbit servicing of satellites. You are invited to comment, ask questions, & discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, & any discussion must be relevant & applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS IS A TWO HOUR WEBINAR PRODUCTION SPONSORED BY THE SECURE WORLD FOUNDATION (SWF). YOU CAN VIEW THIS WEBINAR AT https://vimeo.com/channels/thespaceshow. We welcomed Brian Weeden, Richard DalBello, & Major General, USAF (Retired) James B. Armor, Jr. to the program for an in-depth discussion of on-orbit satellite servicing. This is a new business/industry that is emerging with great interest from governments, the satellite industry, & many other interested parties. During our first webinar hour, our guests explained satellite on-orbit servicing, why the interest in it, the values on the table, & the economics behind this developing industry. We heard from the perspective of the satellite operator with Mr. DalBello, from General Armor with the perspective of a company wanting to provide these services plus what they are commercially doing now in this emerging industry. Gen. Armor talked about the new ATK venture for satellite repair, Vivisat (www.vivisat.com). He was followed by Mr. Weeden who connected the dots with us regarding the big picture implications for security, stability, & policy. We talked about liability issues, insurance, & LEO & GEO satellites in terms of their respective economic value & lifespan. A listener asked about GPS satellites, launch costs, & competition here & abroad. In fact, Brian mentioned several projects outside the US with the Canadians, Germans, & JAXA. Toward the end of the first hour, caller Jack asked about testing & reliability, wondering if repairing satellites would reduce reliability engineering & testing on the ground, thus lowering the satellite’s cost given the possibility of on-orbit repair. Ben followed asking if satellites having a longer life would be sold, comparing this potential to selling real estate once a property has been fully depreciated.
In our webinar second hour, Brian described the DARPA Phoenix Satellite Service project, http://www.darpa.mil/our_work/tto/programs/phoenix.aspx. The issue of satellite abandonment came up & as you will hear, there is no way to abandon any object in space. Another issue in this segment was space situational awareness (SSA). We talked about SSA in LEO, with the new entrepreneurial small satellite companies doing LEO ventures, & the implication of this new industry for launching to & operating in GEO. Later in this segment, we learned that there was no commercial incentive to address the space debris issue. Don’t miss the analysis behind this statement as its important in understanding the space debris issue. A listener asked Richard about launch vehicle insurance & premiums, specifically for the Falcon 9. Also in this segment we talked about the NASA satellite servicing mission, the Restore Mission (http://ssco.gsfc.nasa.gov/robotic_servicing_mission.html). As our webinar drew to a close, we addressed the importance of a STEM education for our young students & the exciting space projects that today’s students will get to do in their careers. Everyone’s closing comments reflected the future orientation & focus for this evolving industry.
Please post your comments/questions on the blog. If you want to email our guests, send your note to me & I will forward it for you.
Brian Weeden, Friday, 8-10-12 August 10, 2012Posted by The Space Show in Uncategorized.
Tags: Brian Weeden, Common-Pool Resources, cubesats, economic exclusion, European Code of Conduct, Game Theory, GEO, GEO radio frequency., Global Commons, Information Economics, ITU, Kessler Syndrome., LEO, Public Good, satellites, Secure World Foundation, space debris, space economics
Brian Weeden, Friday, 8-10-12
Dr. Dwayne Day, Wednesday, 11-23-11 November 23, 2011Posted by The Space Show in Uncategorized.
Tags: " commercial launchers, Air Force, astronaut training infrastructure, China's satellites, Chinese Human Spaceflight, Chinese military in space, Chinese space perspective, Chinese Space Program, Dr. Dwayne Day, Dragon, ISS, NASA, NASA contracting, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, New Space, Phobos-Grunt., Russian astronaut training, Secure World Foundation, Soyuz, space advocacy/enthusiasts, Space Shuttle, Space X, T-38 jet trainer, The Space Review: "Staring into the eyes of the Dragon, U.S. Astronaut Corps, U.S. Human Spaceflight
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Dr. Dwayne Day, Wednesday, 11-23-11
Guest: Dr. Dwayne Day. Topics: The future of the U.S. astronaut corps & the Chinese space program & intentions. You are invited to comment, ask questions, & discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, & any discussion must be relevant & applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. The Space Show/OGLF is now engaged in its annual fundraising drive. Please see & act upon our appeal at https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com/2011/11/21/space-show-2011-fundraising-campaign. We welcomed Dr. Day back to the show to discuss the NRC/National Academies report he directed, “Preparing for the High Frontier: The Role & Training of NASA Astronauts in the Post-Space Shuttle Era.” You can download this report in .pdf format for free: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13227. Later in the program, Dr. Day talked about the Chinese space program based on his Space Review article from Nov. 14, 2011, “Staring into the eyes of the Dragon ( www.thespacereview.com/article/1970/1)”. We started our discussion talking about the astronaut corps of the future. Dr. Day told us about the study panel members, their methodology, their visit to JSC in Houston to see the training facilities, & their discussions with many of the commercial companies working on CCDEV. Their initial assumptions that were proven wrong were that NASA had too many astronauts & the use of the T-38 were not that vital to the program. They discovered that the astronaut corps had already been downsized. Dwayne provided us with a chart which is on the blog for this program showing the astronaut corps population going back to 1959 projected to 2016. The panel looked at three issues at the start of their task: The future role of the corps & its size; Training facilities & needs post shuttle; Training aircraft such as the T-38 for spaceflight readiness issues. During this segment, Dr. Day discussed their work & conclusions in detail. Several questions were about comparing the U.S. astronaut program with the Russians & the training involved with astronauts from other countries. Many listeners wanted to know about the role of commercial launch providers & even if there might be a private astronaut corps. One of the things Dr. Day said was that two commercial astronaut models were being examined by NASA, the rental car model & the “we are in charge” model. He also talked about the impact on the program, planning, & development of uncertainty. As for the T-38s, the conclusion was that they were needed for real time space situational awareness training & decision making. In our second segment, Dwayne took a few New Space focused questions. He mentioned talking to Space X & other companies plus what his panel heard as to their suggestions for the astronaut corps. Later, we talked about NRC reports in general, avoiding conflict of interest, & taxpayer value. A listener from Canada asked about the possibility of a private astronaut corp returning to the Moon before government astronauts. This led to a discussion about space enthusiasts & reality checks. For the balance, we talked about the Chinese program. Here, Dr. Day broke it down between human spaceflight & their defense, science & image satellite programs. He also talked about Chinese intentions. I urge you to read his excellent Space Review article referenced above. For 2012, I will do my best to offer Space Show listeners programming on the Chinese program, including webinar panel discussions, as it is important for us to understand as much as possible about the Chinese program. Post comments & questions on the blog URL above. You can email Dr. Day at email@example.com. If you do email him, please copy me so I can learn from the exchange.