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Dr. Paul Spudis, Friday, 12-11-15 December 12, 2015

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Dr. Paul Spudis, Friday, 12-11-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2602-BWB-2015-12-11.mp3

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Guest: Dr. Paul Spudis. Topics. 2015 space year review, RTM & Cislunar development, comprehensive key space issues review. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Dr. Paul Spudis back to the program for a 2015 space year in review. During the first segment of our 1 hour 31 minute discussion, we covered much ground reviewing key events of 2015 including European, Russian, & Chinese space accomplishments & missions. Dr. Spudis got several emails on a wide range of topics from space advocate rhetoric to Orion, CST 100, Dragon V2 and more. Regarding advocate mission plans and projects, he said the technology people talk about and want to use in their various space mission designs does not really exist. He used going to the Moon to harvest water ice for water and fuel as an example of where we are today. That said, he indicated that there are only so many wants to do certain types of space projects so it was likely that which advocates called for could end up in actual mission plans and real projects. Budget issues were also discussed as well in this segment. Listener Christa asked if the return to the Moon and cislunar development will become a future policy priority. Dr. Spudis had much to say on this topic so don’t miss it. This included the possible impact of the 2016 presidential election on space policy. Jeff in Boston inquired about the aging process and other human factors as challenges/obstacles to doing BLEO projects. Dr. Spudis offered us an interesting perspective on the human factors issues. Jack in Portland inquired about our guest’s views on asteroid mining and the language used in the new commercial space law recently signed b the president. Our guest shared his views with us on these issues. We talked public-private partnerships and government procurement. Kim called from Mexico to inquire about the Lalande Crater on the Moon & the cracks or fissures seen in the photos, plus impact melt and more. She also talked about young and old craters which Paul defined for us upon my request. A young crater would be less than a billion years old! Near the end of the segment Paul talked about the challenges in closing a business case for going to the Moon at this time, plus the proper role for government in this situation. Sandra asked about the lunar space elevator.

In the second segment, Kim called back to inquire some more about Lalande crater, thorium bright spots, and more. BJohn emailed in asking about lunar landers, then Rodney brought up space settlement. Paul had interesting comments on space settlement you will wan to hear. A good portion of the second segment was spent on Mars. Back to the budget, he said the challenge was to do more in the most efficient ways possible while reducing the need for more funding. The Mars-Moon debate came up again with Paul explaining why returning to the Moon before going to Mars was important Solar power for missions and habitats was discussed along wit ISRU usage. Don’t forget to reach Paul’s article on Air and Space about the asteroid mining section in the Commercial Space Law just signed into reality by President Obama. See Paul’s writings at www.airspacemag.com/author/paul-d-spudis/?no-ist as well as at www.spudislunarresources.com. While there, check out his “Close but no Cigar” article we discussed on air (www.spudislunarresources.com/blog/the-new-space-resources-law-close-but-no-cigar).

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Dr. Spudis through his blog and website.

 

Dr. Linda Spilker, Monday, 11-30-15 December 1, 2015

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Dr. Linda Spilker, Monday, 11-30-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2595-BWB-2015-11-30.mp3

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Guest:  Dr. Linda Spilker;  Topic: NASA’s CASSINI mission to Saturn and its planned ending.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

 

We welcomed Dr. Linda Spilker to the program to discuss the NASA Cassini mission to Saturn, Cassini Saturn discoveries, and more.  Note that our program was 66 minutes in length in one segment.  We started our discussion with Dr. Spilker doing a quick overview of the Cassini mission.  It took seven years to get to Saturn and has been flying around the Saturn system for11 years since July 1, 2004.  Cassini will run out of fuel with a spectacular final mission in September 2017 which we discussed later in the show.  Dr. Spilker talked about the design and budget compromises made with Cassini, the mission plan or the Cassini “tours,” the protests against Cassini due to the NTG aboard the spacecraft, plus the path it took to get to the Saturn system.  I asked Dr. Spilker for the highlights so far regarding Cassini discoveries so don’t miss what she had to say about this given there have been so many great findings and discoveries.  We also talked orbital dynamics for Saturn orbiting the sun (1 orbit=30 Earth years) and Cassini orbiting Saturn or touring the rings or the moons.  Highlights included the polar geysers discovered on the moon Enceladus, the mysterious red streaks on a smaller moon, Tethys, plus countless discoveries about Saturn’s ring system.  Linda had much to say about Titan and the Huygens Probe and its camera limitation due to a question by Dr. Doug.  We also talked about finding organics in the Saturn system, the possibility of life, &  comparisons to Mars and Europa.  Ben asked if the huge gravity field of somewhat nearby Jupiter had an impact on Saturn.  Sherry wanted to know if NASA, JPL, or members of the Cassini team ever heard from the NTG protestors with apologies given the great success of Cassini.  I bet you can guess what Dr. Spilker said in reply to Ben.  Our guest was also asked if a future mission could be done using solar rather than an NTG.  While Linda was not certain of it, she did say that great advances have been made in solar panel effectiveness, storage, etc. NASA is looking into the possibility of doing a Cassini like mission using solar power.  Karen wanted to know how long it took Cassini to orbit Saturn.  The answer required knowing the specific tour Cassini was undertaking at the time but anywhere from 6-7 days to a few months depending on the tour.  I asked Linda how JPL planned these tours so don’t miss how this is done and how a mission is planned for a spacecraft such as Cassini.  Doug emailed in another question about possible ion propulsion usage and Burton in Montreal wanted to know if a Saturn probe mission might be part of the new NASA New Frontier Mission group being planned.  Many times during the show Linda referenced building on the shoulders of the Voyager spacecraft and its Saturn system information.  Todd talked about the end of Cassini which prompted Linda to describe the final mission plan for this terrific spacecraft. You can read about this final mission at http://news.discovery.com/space/cassini-grand-finale-nasas-saturn-missions-daring-end-140707.htm.  John in Philadelphia was the last to ask a question as he wanted to know the size and shape of Cassini, what it looked like.  Linda did a great job explaining the size and shape, and schematic for Cassini.

 

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above.  Linda can be reached through JPL or The Space Show.

David Crisp, Monday, 11-23-15 November 24, 2015

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David Crisp, Monday, 11-23-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2591-BWB-2015-11-23.mp3

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Guest: Dr. David Crisp. Topics: NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), Earth’s CO2 environment and more. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Dr. David Crisp to the show to discuss the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2(OCO-2) satellite. During the first segment of our 94 minute program, Dr. Crisp started out by presenting a short overview of the OCO satellites, the first two of which did not make it to orbit due to fairing failure after their Vandenberg launch. For the third attempt, NASA switched rockets to the Delta 2 and the satellite made it to orbit without a problem. Dr. Crisp then explained how OCO-2 works, how it detects and measures CO2 in the atmosphere from the ground up. He explained the color intensity and why the information is so accurate. I asked him to compare OCO-2 data with climate models. Here, Dr. Crisp stressed the fact that he was not a climate scientist or policy maker. That said, he did compare and contrast OCO-2 data with climate models to the degree reasonable comparisons can be made. We talked about natural sources of CO2 on earth, both land and water (ocean, rivers, and lakes), as compared to manmade sources of CO2. Dr. Crisp explained the emitting and absorption capabilities from the natural CO2 sources, photosynthesis with plants, and the fact that manmade CO2 is only emitted, not absorbed. This CO2 can stay in the atmosphere for a thousand years or so. He talked about the total parts per million of CO2 in the atmosphere, how it has gone down and now is going up over the years and the amount of human created CO2 in the atmosphere and how that has increased over the years. Listeners asked about methane but OCO-2 was not designed to detect methane. He was also asked about water vapor. Dr. Crisp explained that water vapor in the atmosphere was detected and measured by other satellites, particularly weather satellites so it was not part of this genre of satellites. Jack emailed in a question to point out that a pause was going on for the past 19 years or so and the planet was not cooling despite human CO2 increases. Dr. Crisp offered an explanation for the pause so don’t miss it.   Jane from Seattle brought up the fact that warming and cooling on Earth has been going on since the beginning of time, without human produced C02. She asked how this could be given the conclusions many make regarding the increase in human produced CO2 levels for today causing global warming. Don’t miss how Dr. Crisp responded to Jane. Dr. Crisp also talked about solar warming and cooling cycles and said we are currently in a solar cooling cycle. Randy emailed in a question about the draught in California and its relationship to CO2 increases.

In the second segment, Becky in Las Vegas sent in a note asking about the climate and atmosphere on Venus and Mars given our guest has studied both planets. She was looking for a common link with Earth or maybe a common trend. Dr. Crisp had much to say about both Venus and Mars. Later in the discussion, I asked if humans were on Venus with advanced technology, could they have intervened in the global warming process and mitigated the impact of it. He said he doubted it, explained why and then the same question was asked about Mars though the situation on Mars was and is different than on Venus. For the most part, Venus was too close to the sun to do anything about it and Mars was too far to do anything about the Martian problems. This is why Earth is in the Goldilocks zone and why we search for exoplanets in this zone. Later, Dr. Crisp talked about today having the highest CO2 levels ever and the growing Earth population which is around 7.2 billion people having nearly doubled over the last 45-50 years. This led us to a discussion about energy, including coal, natural gas & nuclear power. He had some surprising comments about China and coal, don’t miss them. We also talked about India and its use of coal, then Dr. Crisp talk about the need to be able to store power, use solar and wind power, and to enlarge the grid to take wind or solar from areas where it was strong to be able to ship to areas that needed it. He also talked about the need to improve energy storage. Near the end of the program, I asked about any surprises discovered from the OCO-2 data. We then talked about how long OCO-2 would last and here, we talked about the design as a demo satellite without redundant or backup systems. A listener asked if cubesats could do such an OCO-2 type mission. Don’t miss his answer but the simple one was no because the technology for doing this requires hardware that is considerably larger than could be used by a cubesat. Before the show ended, we talked about the NASA Earth Science Budget, the cost per taxpayer, and our ability to freely download OCO-2 data off their website. He then identified the largest user and downloader of the data. I bet you will be surprised by what he said. NASA was the second largest downloader of the data.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog. You can reach Dr. Crisp through me or through a JPL search for his name and information.

Dr. Jens Biele, Friday, 8-28-15 August 29, 2015

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Dr. Jens Biele, Friday, 8-28-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2543-BWB-2015-08-28.mp3

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Guest: Dr. Jens Biele. Topics: The Philae Lander & Rosetta Mission, DLR & ESA missions & more. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed to the show Dr. Jens Biele of the DLR to discuss the Philae Lander as part of the Rosetta Mission to Comet 67P. During the first segment of our 1 hour 27 minute discussion, Dr. Biele summarized the Rosetta mission going back to its planning and development days, the flight to Comet 67PM and the Philae Lander’s anchor landing failure which he talked about at length. He also talked about communications from the lander to the orbiter and the narrow window for successful communications. We talked about solar and battery power, the type of data it can still transmit and related issues. Later, he was asked about other forms of propulsion including ion thrusters and advanced propulsion, plus he was asked if it would have been better to power the spacecraft by an RTG. He summarized some of the trades involved in making these types of decisions so don’t miss the discussion. BJohn asked about other DLR missions so MASCOT was discussed and later he discussed AIDA and AIM. As part of this discussion flyby missions were detailed and trojan asteroids were discussed. The subject of searching for life came up along with the discovery of organic molecules. Near the end of the segment, Roger from Rutgers asked if they considered Philae a success. Don’t miss his answer to this one. Other topics in this segment including drill samples, mission operating cost considerations, launcher choices and the shape of 67P which was a puzzle yet to be explained.

In the second segment, I asked our guest about the extremely long mission planning and design times coupled with the very long flight time and how that impacted people wanting to work space projects. As you will hear, it is not much different in Europe than here in the States with the same issues with NASA missions here. BJohn asked additional questions about future DLR missions and robotic exploration. This is the discussion that talked about both the AIDA and AIM European missions. Listener Helen asked about general European public support of ESA and space. You might be surprised by what our guest had to say in response to Helen so don’t miss it. In this context, Dr. Biele talked about ESA PR and its limitations and constraints. Toward the end of our program, he talked about human spaceflight, referenced Mars and going to Phobos as an initial part of human Mars exploration. When I asked our guest for closing comments, he said “If you dare you win. Take Some risks.” His final comments were ” Landers are cool!”

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Dr. Biele through me or his DLR website.

 

Dr. Robert Pappalardo, Monday, 7-27-15 July 28, 2015

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Dr. Robert Pappalardo, Monday, 7-27-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2514-BWB-2015-07-27.mp3

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Guest: Dr. Robert Pappalardo. Topics: The Europa Mission Development Plan plus information on this moon. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Dr. Robert Pappalardo to the show to discuss Europa and the upcoming Europa Mission by JPL which is now in the development phase. During the first segment of our 1 hour 27 minute program, Dr. Pappalardo talked about the origins of the NASA JPL Europa mission now in the development phase. He briefly described the experiments & instruments planned for the mission, then answered questions about the mission such as will the mission search for life. In response to this question, he said it would search for simple life through an indirect means which he described more fully in the second segment of the show. Our guest talked about having learned lots from the earlier Galileo spacecraft, especially about the Europa magnetic field and the likelihood of the oceans consisting of saltwater. Dr. Pappalardo also talked about the structure of Europa with the icy surface, oceans under the ice ad then a rocky base under the oceans. Dr. Pappalardo brought up the tidal heating of Europa and spoke to that quite a bit during the show. He talked about chemical energy and nutrients which may support simple life in the Europa oceans. Listener Joe asked how Europa could be in a habitable zone, even for simple life, given its cold temperatures. Our guest said Europa was expanding the definition of habitable zone & that the tidal heating was crucial to the possibility of finding simple life molecules. Don’t miss his complete response to this question. We talked mission timeline which was from about 2022 to the mid-2020s. We also learned that the Europa launch window was every 13 months. Our guest was asked about transit time to Europa. He said it depended on the rocket. With SLS it would be less than 3 years. Another rocket would take at least 3.5 years or longer. We also discussed bandwidth issues for getting data, images, and video back to Earth. I asked about the possibility of using cubesats as part of the Europa mission, then Bob talked about the radiation challenge which he said was significant because Jupiter acts as a giant particle accelerator. Don’t miss this discussion, especially the part abbot how much ice would be needed for effective shielding. Also, the Europa satellite will come as close as 25KM to the surface of Europa.

In the second segment, Bob went into detail about the scientific instruments that will comprise the Europa mission. He took us through each one in detail so don’t miss it. The radar pushes the technology envelope. So does the mass spectrometer. Harry wanted to know if a plutonium RTG would be used for power and if they were anticipating Cassini like protests. Bob said that they would be using solar power. Again, don’t miss the discussion. Cindy asked Bob about the length of the Europa day and year, another listener asked about Europa volcanoes and we learned that Europa has icy volcanoes. Amber wanted to know if the ice on Europa was the same as ice here on Earth. A UK listener wanted to know why Europa was not sucked into Jupiter by the planet’s huge gravity field. Don’t miss Bob’s explanation of this. Toward the end of the segment, he talked about the significance and importance of the search for simple life molecules/organics. Final questions concerned specific Europa classes at the college level & more on the European JUICE Mission and its plans for Europa. We agreed to stay in touch with one another regarding Europa and the upcoming mission so Dr. Pappalardo will be returning to The Space Show.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Dr. Pappalardo through me or JPL.

Chris Carberry, Sunday, 1-4-15 January 5, 2015

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Chris Carberry, Sunday, 1-4-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2386-BWB-2015-01-04.mp3

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Guest:  Chris Carberry.  Topics:  Human spaceflight to Mars, Exploremars.org, Mars political advocacy.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See http://www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.  Please note that in the second segment there were two very noisy cell phone calls and we apologize for that. I believe the noise was outdoor wind noise at the callers location.

We welcomed back Chris Carberry, Executive Director of Explore Mars, to outline for us their Mars 2015 plans along with proposed political advocacy with the new Congress and upcoming 2016 presidential election.  In the first segment of our 96 minute discussion, Chris mentioned some of the highlight planned for Explore Mars for 2015 including their H2M Conference at GWU from May 5-7 plus he updated us on the ExoLance and their time capsule projects.  We talked about the political work needed and what Explore Mars was doing regarding this with the incoming congressional members and in preparing for the 2016 presidential race.  I asked Chris to tell how human spaceflight to Mars is presented to congressional members for the most impact and what the biggest objections were which he said focused on the budget.  He also suggested there was lots of political interest in human spaceflight to Mars.  Later we talked about Mars or the Moon, competing for funding and for priority status.  Marshall called with questions about needed energy for a human venture to Mars, focusing on either solar power or nuclear power.  The nuclear power part set up a more extensive discussion.  Chris responded to several emails about lunar water and should it be the Moon or Mars.  He was also asked about depots and their possible support of a humans to Mars mission.

In the second segment, Kirk called in for updates on ExoLance and he asked about a sustainable one way mission to Mars, particularly if public money was used for the mission. Chris thought we were far off from a publicly funded one way Martian mission.  Later, Chris talked about increased interest and talk about going to Mars and he mentioned several companies have plans for a humans to Mars mission.  Orion and SLS came up as well.  A 20 year time line was suggested for the Mars mission.  Toward the end of the discussion, Chris said their 2015 agenda was to continue focusing on building the Mars coalition, to start briefing presidential candidates in advance of the 2016 election, plus working with the new congress.  Toward the end of the show, Chris was asked about going to the moons of Mars instead of Mars.  Tim, our last caller, wanted to know about Red Dragon.

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above.  You can contact Chris through his website or me.

Josh Neubert, Friday, 12-16-11 December 16, 2011

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Josh Neubert, Friday, 12-16-11

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1673-BWB-2011-12-16.mp3

 Guest:  Josh Neubert.  Topics:  Night Rover Challenge, NASA Centennial Challenges, educational outreach.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  The Space Show/OGLF is now engaged in its annual fundraising drive. Please see & act upon our appeal at https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com/2011/11/21/space-show-2011-fundraising-campaign.  We welcomed Josh Neubert back to the program to discuss the  NASA Centennial Challenge, The Night Rover Challenge.  Please visit these websites for more information and email alerts:  www.nightrover.org and www.nasa.gov/offices/oct/early_stage_innovation/centennial_challenges/night_rover/index.html.  This was a one hour discussion without a break.  Josh started out by describing the Night Rover Challenge which is to develop mobile systems to collect solar energy, store that energy, and later use it productively.  The innovation will consolidate in a contest for simulated lunar rovers maximizing energy to run for two weeks day and night and survive the cold lunar night.  Josh told us about the Challenge time line and the sole focus on solar power and storage.  As you will hear, the prize is $1.5 million with first, second, and third place winners.  Terry asked technical questions about the potential battery packs and the maximum size of the rovers.  We learned that the biggest size would probably be in the range of the Curiosity rover on the way to Mars with a much smaller size on the other end of the measurements.  Michael asked if the power sources would be required to meet the legal standards required under international law to preserve the environment of outer space in regards to potential hazardous materials that may contaminate the outer space environment. Josh said yes, those standards would be part of the requirements for the competition.  Several listeners asked if non-U.S. citizens could participate in the Challenge and if there were ITAR considerations.  We learned that non-U.S. citizens could participate but were not eligible to win the prize money.  I asked who was most likely to participate in the challenge. Josh suggested students of all ages and grades, plus the do it yourself community, entrepreneurs, smaller businesses, etc.  We also talked about sponsorship opportunities as NASA does not cover operating expenses.  Another listener asked about the use of social media for the Night Rover outreach program.  As you will hear, this Challenge will make use of both social media and collaboration in getting the message out and participants in the challenge.  Near the end of the program, we discussed the proximity ofSilicon Valley, NASA Ames, and the significance of these communities to all the contestants involved in the challenge.  Josh closed by stressing how this program inspires, excites, and jump starts the best and the brightest to innovate, be creative, and to produce!  If you have questions about the Night Rover Challenge, there is a contact link on their website.  Please post your Space Show comments/questions on the blog URL above.