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Charles (Charlie) Precourt, Friday, 8-7-15 August 8, 2015

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Charles (Charlie) Precourt, Friday, 8-7-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2521-BWB-2015-08-07.mp3

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Guest: Charlie Precourt. Topics: Human spaceflight, SLS-Orion, Mars, Moon, technology & more. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

We welcomed Charlie Precourt back to the show to discuss SLS-Orion progress and milestones, human spaceflight, technology advancement, & much more. During our one segment 63 minute discussion, I first asked out guest about the Orbital ATK merger and business under the combined companies. We soon shifted to the SLS-Orion discussion which included information on the 5 segment solid rocket booster (SRB), tonnage to escape which our guest explained, possible missions, and opportunities that will become available as a result of having this heavy lift rocket available for missions that need the lift & high energy capacity of SLS. We talked about shorter travel times, larger payload mass & volume, plus higher energy transfer orbits using SLS as compared to an EELV. Charlies was asked about SRB safety for human spaceflight. Don’t miss his comments on this issue. He talked at length about the benefits of marrying the SRB for lift out of a gravity well to liquids for propulsion once in space. Our guest provided statistics on SRB launches and uses to support what he was telling us. Charlie also talked about his Space Shuttle flight experience and the Shuttle’s SME, especially when there was an SME problem on one of his shuttle flights. We talked about going BLEO and he introduced us to the concept of One Space. As a result of listener questions, our guest talked about SLS costs, its design for multiple destinations and missions, and the launch “sweet spot” that it would fill. BJohn asked if there were uses for an SRB or solid rocket motor in space. Charlie said for liftoff from a gravity well, yes, but otherwise the SPI for a solid was likely too low for in-space propulsion. I asked our guest about Orbital ATK meeting the SLS -Orion milestones and upcoming flight testing. Jeff from Tucson called in about the use of modern technology including light weight epoxy material for SRBs & other spaceflight hardware. Near the end of the program, I asked Charlie about the justification for HSF to see what he had to say about it. Don’t miss his reply. We then talked about technology challenges in going to Mars, choices that were made to do the shuttle and ISS over deep space missions, and destinations that were still Earth dependent as compared to those being Earth independent such as Mars. Jack emailed in a question based on a show earlier in the week where the guest said that for putting SPS infrastructure in space, SLS was too sophisticated. What was needed was big rockets that had a 2% failure rate as that rocket would be lots cheaper than an SLS. Charlie did not specifically comment on SPS infrastructure but did take issue with the notion that it would be fine to have a rocket with a high failure rate to make it cheaper than something like SLS. Listen to how he explained this. Tell us what you think on TSS blog. As the show was about to end, a listener ask Charlie, based on his F15, Air Force, and test pilot experience, what he thought of the new F35 Joint Strike Fighter and the shortcomings of the new fighter that are reported in the press. Charlie had interesting comments about this so don’t miss them.

 

Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Charlie Precourt through The Space Show.

Dr. John Jurist & Kobi Hudson, Sunday, 4-19-15 April 20, 2015

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Dr. John Jurist & Kobi Hudson, Sunday, 4-19-15

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2456-BWB-2015-04-19.mp3

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Guests:  Dr. John Jurist, Kobi Hudson.  Topics:  Orbital ATK 5 segment booster test and the ISS Algae experiment.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.  For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience.

 

We welcomed Dr. John Jurist and Kobi Hudson to the program to discuss their recent experiences at the Orbital ATK 5 segment booster test in Utah and the ISS algae experiment Kobi and his teammates are working on at this time.  During the first segment of our 1 hour 58 minute discussion, John and Kobi talked about viewing the Orbital ATK 5 segment booster test this past March in Utah.  John has attended all the 5 segment booster tests but this was the first one for Kobi who is one of John’s students at Rocky Mountain College in Billings, MT.  Kobi described the test, what it looked like and how it felt from the viewing area, the networking opportunities he had with those attending the test including many executives from across our aerospace industry & NASA.  I asked John and Kobi if they sensed that the Orbital ATK team was aware of the controversy surrounding the final destination for the booster, SLS.  We talked about this for several minutes.  I think you will find what both John and Kobi had to say about this to be very interesting.  This discussion took us into an SLS discussion but from a slightly different perspective than our usual Space Show SLS discussions.  A listener asked our guests if either of them noticed a cultural difference in the test team given the Orbital and ATK merger.  Kobi was asked if the test and the experience inspired him to want to work in the aerospace field which it did.

 

In the second segment, Marshall called to inquire about the use of liquid rocket motors as compared to solids and wanted to know which type was more efficient. Both John and Marshall seemed to agree that it might depend on which type of propulsion system gets more launches and usage though the solids are far simpler.  As part of this discussion, the political dimensions of decision making were brought up as they play a role in the propulsion system and thus influence efficiencies.  Next, we turned to Kobi to explain to us the algae experiment he and others are working and which will fly to the ISS on the SpaceX 7 launch.  Behind this experiment is the goal of testing how well algae grows and how much carbon dioxide it consumes in a zero-gravity environment.  They want to see if it can influence the presence of oxygen in the spaceship.  The algae is grown in an agar solid media.  Kobi went into details on this experiment which I believe you will find of interest. When the team gets the data back from the 28 day test, Kobi will come back to the show to update us on what they found out.  Later in the segment, SLS John called in to follow up on our earlier SLS conversation and the proposed NASA ARM.  Several listener questions came in by email regarding both the issue of solids vs. liquids and the algae experiment.  Kobi also got a question or two about this work on the Firebird cubesat program.  He said it used a polar orbit , was then asked if cubesats could go to the Moon or elsewhere and he said probably but challenging. Doug called to talk closed loop life support and related issues.  The last question came from a high school senior asking Kobi about the need to attend a Tier One school and the consequences for going to a school not as well known and not as highly ranked.  All three of us, Kobi, myself, and John responded to this question saying about the same thing but in different words.  Both John and Kobi offered concluding comments you don’t want to miss.

 

Please post your comments and questions on TSS blog above.  You can reach both guests through me.

 

 

Gerald (Jerry) Carr, Friday, 6-28-13 June 28, 2013

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Gerald (Jerry) Carr, Friday, 6-28-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/2038-BWB-2013-06-28.mp3

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Guest: Gerald (Jerry) Carr.  Topics:  Astronaut Scholarship Foundation, the Skylab space station.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm.   For those of you interested in the opportunity to submit feedback on the NRC congressionally mandated Human Spaceflight Study, please go to www.nationalacademies.org/humanspaceflight.  Please remember that your Amazon Purchases Can Help Support The Space Show/OGLF (www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm).

We welcomed retired Skylab astronaut Jerry Carr back to the program to discuss the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation (www.astronautscholarship.org) and the 40th anniversary of the Skylab space station.  Jerry the discussion with an overview of the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation, the STEM college scholarships it awards each year, auctions held to support the scholarship program as well as sales off the gift store on their website.  We then switched over to Skylab nothing that there will be a 40th anniversary celebration at KSC on July 27.  You can find out more about this celebration on the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation website.  I asked Jerry to describe for us one of his most memorable Skylab experiences and he talked about going into the command module flying over the Pacific and the views he saw as Skylab traveled in its orbit from Japan to the Pacific Northwest and more.  This is a great description of his view, don’t miss it.  Listeners asked Jerry multiple questions about Skylab, his experiences on board, comparing Skylab to the ISS and Skylab to the Mir.  We even talked about Skylab food and butter cookies, 0 g adaptation, close calls, and getting stuck in the center of Skylab.  Later in the segment, Jerry talked about consulting for space station human design factors for the ISS, then budget issues for Skylab as compared to NASA budget issues of today. We also talked about lessons learned throughout the program.  He was asked about inflatable commercial space stations & the time capsule they left on board when they departed the station.

In the second segment, a listener asked if the time capsule was recovered or could have survived reentry.  Another listener asked about the Skylab data still coming under analysis, then I asked about his public speaking engagements and if he could spot trends over time in terms people’s interest in space and science.  Jerry had much to say in response to several questions on this theme so don’t miss them.  Tony wanted to know about space radiation issues, Mars One, & artificial gravity with tethers.  Near the end, a listener brought up the recent interview with Rand Simberg and his space safety argument in his new book, “Safe Is Not An Option.”  We talked about risk taking, the mission, even risk taking landing on carriers and flying combat missions with the Marines.  He thought there might be too much risk averseness out of politically correct thinking but don’t miss all of his comments on this subject.  Our final topic focused on art with his wife Pat.  Check out their exhibit, OUR FRAGILE HOME at www.camusart.com.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog.  You can contact our guest through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Robert Sackheim, Monday, 4-1-13 April 2, 2013

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Robert Sackheim, Monday, 4-1-13

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1986-BWB-2013-04-01.mp3

Guest:  Robert (Bob) Sackheim.  Topics:  Commercial space, propulsion, U.S. space policy & more. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information.

We welcomed Robert Sackheim to the program to discuss NASA, commercial space, the current state of rocket propulsion and advancements in the field.  During our first segment of this 1 hour 47 minute discussion, Mr. Sackheim talked about his background and experience at TRW, NASA MSFC, and his current consulting.  I asked him several questions about the current state of rocket propulsion. Bob had much to say about this, focusing on chemical rocket propulsion, satellite propulsion, electric propulsion, and the need for nuclear propulsion.  He talked about booster rockets, various rocket stages and their propulsion, rocket engines, and even SRBs.  Several questions came in asking him if we had the current technology for HSF to Mars or even the Inspiration Mars flyby mission talked about so much in the recent press.  Listeners wanted to know if our current levels of propulsion were up to the task.  After a rather thorough propulsion discussions, Bob turned to commercial space, lowering total space mission costs, regulatory policy, and commercial spaceports.  He also talked about budget issues and raised the question a few times as to why ten NASA centers were needed given their often overlapping, competitive, and duplicate work.

In our second segment, commercial space took the lead with a discussion on public/private partnerships & the belief that Americans can do anything if we set our mind to it, including space travel.  Of course here the problem as we know lies in leadership and today it appears that leadership in space & other areas is sparse at best.   Bob then focused on geo satellites and the increasing development and capabilities applicable to cubesats.  HSF came up for discussion as did the robotic missions. You might be surprised by what our guest had to say about HSF.  Other issues in this segment included the lunar space elevator, the congressional and NASA track record in canceling ongoing projects & taking lessons from history, SSP, & ways to reform & move NASA forward.  Bob spoke about evolving toward the old NACA model.  I asked about the impact of space advocacy from his perspective given his leadership experience and past positions in leading organizations and projects.  We also asked him about space tourism and hybrid rocket engines. He had much to say about hybrids, don’t miss the discussion.  Bob talked about the Falcon rockets, testing including static fire tests, and SRBs as related to the Constellation project and safety.  Toward the end, our guest was asked about NewSpace, fuel depots, & cryo transfer.  For closing comments, he talked about commercial space being the way to go & the path to our space future.

Please post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog. You can reach Mr. Sackheim through me at drspace@thespaceshow.com.

Dr. George Sowers, Monday, 11-12-12 November 13, 2012

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Dr. George Sowers, Monday, 11-12-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1892-BWB-2012-11-12.mp3

Guest:  Dr. George Sowers.  Topics:  United Launch Alliance, Atlas 5, Delta IV, human rating Atlas and Delta.  Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. We welcomed Dr. George Sowers, VP of Human Launch Services at ULA back to the show for a special one hour report on Atlas, Delta, human rating rockets, and much more.  Dr. Sowers started off by letting us know that ULA recently created the Human Launch Services Division with Dr. Sowers as the Vice-President.  Dr. Sowers then updated us on some of their more visible ULA activities since his last visit to The Space Show in January 2011, including probable SLS and Dream Chaser time lines, commercial crew participation and Orion tests in 2014.  We talked about the ULA role in commercial crew and what was needed to human rate the Atlas as well as the Delta IV.  I also asked about needed pad modifications for HSF with an Atlas and Dr. Sowers told us about modifications to Launch Complex 41 at the Cape for the upcoming crewed flights.  Listeners asked our guest lots of questions about safety, pad modifications, range safety issues, and the difference in human rating the Atlas as compared to a Delta.  Another question asked of our guest was to understand the contributing factors to the impressive launch success and safety rate for the Atlas rocket.  Dr. Sowers answered this in some detail with attention being paid to what is known at the 3 P’s.  Charles wanted to know about the Russian RD-180 engines & another listener wanted to know if ULA was feeling competitive “heat” from SpaceX. Yves in Montreal asked about the dual centaur having uses other than for commercial crew and Barbara wanted to know about the role of an Atlas for possible orbital tourism with a Bigelow space station module.  We talked about ULA’s potential interest in new spaceports which seem to be developing around the country, then I asked Dr. Sowers about what constituted a commercial space project. Here, we learned that commercial implies largely financed by private funds, not government money.  He said that EELV was developed by 80% private sector funding.  We also talked about the Arianne family of rockets and their pricing which is subsidized by European governments.  Dr. Sowers explained why it was so hard to compete against government subsidized pricing.  Another topic of interest in our discussion was launch vehicle market and pricing elasticity and how to drive up launch rates and lower launch costs.  We also talked about human spaceflight having the government as the primary leader for the market and cargo as having only an ISS market at this time.  On orbit propellant depots were discussed as was SLS and heavy lift.  As we neared the end of the hour, we talked about SRBs for the human rated Atlas.
     In our brief second segment, I went over the near term Space Show schedule and our last caller John from Florida called in to wonder if a real emergency came up if we would launch a crewed rocket/vehicle to try to save the ISS for example or would we be unwilling to take the risk and let the ISS deorbit in the example given.  Hopefully such a predicament does not arise.
     If you have comments/questions about our discussion with Dr. Sowers, please post them on The Space Show blog.

Rick Searfoss (Col, USAF RET.), Monday, 6-18-12 June 19, 2012

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Rick Searfoss (Col, USAF RET.), Monday, 6-18-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1798-BWB-2012-06-18.mp3

Guest:  Rick Searfoss (Col., USAF, RET.).  Topics: Rocket Flight, XCOR, Lynx, flight safety, leadership.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed back to The Space Show Rick Searfoss to discuss spaceflight flying, XCOR Aerospace, the Lynx, and much more.  You can learn more about Rick Searfoss by visiting his website, www.astronautspeaker.com.  For more about the Lynx and XCOR, visit www.xcor.com.  We started our discussion with an overview of a successful test flight program.  During this discussion, our guest made it clear that flight tests are supposed to detect the unknown and to catch problems in time for them to be fixed prior to surfacing during commercial operations.  The test pilot is prepared for the unknown and this is why he later said that future XCOR pilots would need to have U.S. military test pilot school experience along with their military flight experience.  Also, the testing starts out very slow and escalates based on the progress and analysis of the tests.  One crawls before one runs, so to speak.  I asked him to compare a spaceship test flight program to information I had on a new Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental Jetliner that Boeing was putting through 600 flight hours of flight tests (www.examiner.com/article/new-boeing-747-8-intercontinental-maiden-flight).  Don’t miss this discussion, its interesting, important, & relevant.  Col. Searfoss received an email from Jeremy asking about humans riding on solid rocket boosters (SRB) and the safety in doing that.  This resulted in another interesting discussion.  We then talked about piston pump technology, suborbital flight, turbo pumps, and the XCOR program working with ULA regarding hydrogen pumps.  I asked Rick to describe the Lynx flight from the passenger perspective.  Doug wanted to know about the first flight timeline for later this year and then Christine wrote in asking if the Lynx cockpit would have dual controls similar to an airplane.  A question came in about the Chinese rendezvous & docking per their current mission & Rick’s take on the process given his space shuttle pilot experience.  Rick talked about this with the shuttle in some detail.

In our second segment, Terry called in to ask about the XCOR flight software.  As you will hear, XCOR flight software means humans.  Listen to what he had to say about this, including issues with space shuttle software.  Our guest then talked more about the flight readiness process including the Technical Review Board and Safety Review Board process.  Other topics discussed included citizen science on board the Lynx, ITAR issues, additional Lynx pilot qualifications, and defense dept. applications for Lynx and the suborbital industry.  Lee called in to ask about an evolution to an orbital vehicle, other questions came in regarding runway requirements, passenger height & weight requirements, and spaceports.  Near the end of our discussion, we talked about an emergency exit from the Lynx, spacesuits and bailout.  Also discussed throughout the program were suggestions for the passenger to better prepare for his/her flight.

If you have comments/questions, please post them on The Space Show blog.

Jay Barbree, Monday, 3-5-12 March 5, 2012

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Jay Barbree, Monday, 3-5-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1727-BWB-2012-03-05.mp3

Guest:  Jay Barbree.  Topics:  Overview of the space program today, SLS, presidential politics and NASA.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. We welcomed NBC veteran space reporter Jay Barbree back to The Space Show for a conversation that focused on our best options for today’s space program.  Our discussion was one hour forty minutes without a break.  We started out discussing Jay’s thoughts when he reported on the last shuttle flight given he had reported on every shuttle flight ever made.  He also told us he had updated and reissued his best selling book “Moonshot” which he co-authored with Alan Shepherd and Deke Slayton.  Remember, if you buy it from Amazon with this specific URL, Amazon makes a contribution to The Space Show: www.amazon.com/Moon-Shot-Alan-Shepard/dp/1453211977/ref=onegiantlea20.  Other topics discussed included a comparison of the original astronauts to astronauts today and the need to return to the Moon.  In fact, Jay told us about ideas being discussed to use the ISS to do a figure 8 loop to and from the Moon rather than crashing it into the ocean at the end of its life.  To do this, he said nuclear propulsion was needed and this led him to discuss the overall need for the nuclear rocket, especially for going to Mars.  A listener asked him if he favored a one way trip to Mars and he said yes.  Don’t miss his complete answer.  Next, we started talking about the Space Launch System which ended up as the main discussion topic for the balance of the program.  Jay strongly supports SLS and is concerned that it might be cancelled.  We talked about what the Obama administration would likely be doing with space and then he talked about his conversations with the Republican candidates and his impressions of each one and their interest in space.  He talked at length about Newt’s Florida primary comments and returning to the Moon in general. He also talked about the need for space settlement given the vulnerability of Earth.  Later, a listener asked Jay if he was familiar with the accusations being made against NASA for how they dealt with the chimps in the early space program and their idea to get KSC to donate space for a chimp museum documenting abuse during their NASA days and dedicating to stopping lab research.  Jay was not familiar with the story but listener Tim found the story on the PETA website:  http://www.peta.org/b/thepetafiles/archive/2012/02/29/peta-to-launch-memorial-at-space-center.aspx.   Jay talked more about the SLS but also about Falcon 9, Dragon, the Boeing CTS 100, and the Atlas 5.  He expressed his concerns many times that the politicians might actually mess up NASA and our future, specifically by cancelling SLS, Orion, or both.  At the end, he told us about his MSNBC.com series “Getting to Mars” which is already underway.  Post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog URL above.

Steve Bouley, Wednesday, 1-18-12 January 19, 2012

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Steve Bouley, Wednesday, 1-18-12

http://archived.thespaceshow.com/shows/1692-BWB-2012-01-18.mp3

Guest:  Steve Bouley.  Topics:  Wideband Global SATCOM launch, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne engines, hypersonics, commercial space markets & more.  You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, https://thespaceshow.wordpress.com.  Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright.  We welcomed Steve Bouley of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) to discuss the Delta IV medium launch of the DOD Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) communication satellite, hypersonics, lowing the cost of access to space, rocket safety and more.  We started our discussion with a focus on the Jan. 19th 7:38 PM EST launch of WGS on the Delta IV medium which uses PWR RS-68 and RL10B-2 engines.  Mr. Bouley provided us with thrust specs for the engines.  He also went over the very impressive and highly successful track record for their engines and fielded questions about their manufacturing and quality control process.  This took us to our next subject, equating reliability with experience and then understanding that the launch market is relatively flat with low launch rates which causes higher launch prices.  There were several listener questions during this special one hour interview.  The questions focused on human rating the rockets and what PWR would have to do to their engines to have them fly people to space.  Don’t miss Steve’s response to this line of questioning.  We talked some more about the flat demand and Steve was asked if PWR could easily and quickly ramp up their production line were demand to change quickly.  The short answer was “yes.”  We talked about hypersonics and the evolution of technology development.  We also talked about the likely path to commercial operation for a hypersonic vehicle.  Our guest took a call from Jerry about SLS, SRBs, the Saturn V, and bringing back the F1A engine.  Mike sent in a note asking about safety issues for a jet engine as compared to a rocket engine.  Toward the end, our guest was asked to provide the very early history of PWR and rocket engine development.  As our program drew to a close, I asked Steve to tell us about his work on launch day and if he still gets excited about a launch given he has seen hundreds of them during his career.  Post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog URL above.